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What are word classes?
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All words belong to categories called word classes according to the part they play in a sentence 


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Main word classes in English
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Noun
Verb
Adjective
Adverb
Pronoun
Preposition 
Conjunction 
Determiner
Exclamation
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What are grammatical functions?
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The “rules” of a language, who dictate in which sequence the word classes are allowed to be placed 

Main grammatical functions:
Subject
Predicate/Predicator
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Prepositional Object 
Adverbial
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Difference between word classes and grammatical functions
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Word classes describe what words are (e.g. Noun, Verb,...) and grammatical functions explain the relationship between the words and what they do (e.g. subject, predicate,...)

Word classes are formal categories in contrast to grammatical functions 
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What is a clause?
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- Central unit of any language
- Units of language which convey a single message about some event or state, including information about what kind of event or state it is; who is taking part; where, when, why or how it happened etc.
- Consists of subject + predicate 
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Obligatory elements of clauses
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Predicate/Verb (V)
Subject (SUB)
Direct Object (DO)
Indirect Object (IO)
Subject predicative (PS)
Object predicative (PO)
Adverbial (A)

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Difference between sentences and clauses
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-> A clause cannot stand on its own 
-> A sentence hast to include at least one clause (main clause, subordinate clause...)
-> Sentence can be seen as a whole while clauses are only parts of it

Although it was raining outside, I went for a walk. 
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Difference between main clause and subordinates clause
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Main clause
Makes sense by itself

Subordinate clause
Doesn’t make sense without a main clause; refers to the main clause 
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Subordinate Clauses are also called independent clauses 
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False 
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Main clauses cannot stand on their own and need to be accompanied by a subordinate clause in order to form a sentence.
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False
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The obligatory elements of a clause are object and predicate.
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False
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Many subordinate clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction.
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True
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Q:
What are word classes?
A:
All words belong to categories called word classes according to the part they play in a sentence 


Q:
Main word classes in English
A:
Noun
Verb
Adjective
Adverb
Pronoun
Preposition 
Conjunction 
Determiner
Exclamation
Q:
What are grammatical functions?
A:
The “rules” of a language, who dictate in which sequence the word classes are allowed to be placed 

Main grammatical functions:
Subject
Predicate/Predicator
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Prepositional Object 
Adverbial
Q:
Difference between word classes and grammatical functions
A:
Word classes describe what words are (e.g. Noun, Verb,...) and grammatical functions explain the relationship between the words and what they do (e.g. subject, predicate,...)

Word classes are formal categories in contrast to grammatical functions 
Q:
What is a clause?
A:
- Central unit of any language
- Units of language which convey a single message about some event or state, including information about what kind of event or state it is; who is taking part; where, when, why or how it happened etc.
- Consists of subject + predicate 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Obligatory elements of clauses
A:
Predicate/Verb (V)
Subject (SUB)
Direct Object (DO)
Indirect Object (IO)
Subject predicative (PS)
Object predicative (PO)
Adverbial (A)

Q:
Difference between sentences and clauses
A:
-> A clause cannot stand on its own 
-> A sentence hast to include at least one clause (main clause, subordinate clause...)
-> Sentence can be seen as a whole while clauses are only parts of it

Although it was raining outside, I went for a walk. 
Q:
Difference between main clause and subordinates clause
A:
Main clause
Makes sense by itself

Subordinate clause
Doesn’t make sense without a main clause; refers to the main clause 
Q:
Subordinate Clauses are also called independent clauses 
A:
False 
Q:
Main clauses cannot stand on their own and need to be accompanied by a subordinate clause in order to form a sentence.
A:
False
Q:
The obligatory elements of a clause are object and predicate.
A:
False
Q:
Many subordinate clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction.
A:
True
Introduction Descriptive Grammar

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