Schwerpunkt 3: Infektionsimmunologie an der Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Schwerpunkt 3: Infektionsimmunologie an der Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover

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Who discovered Penicillin and when?

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A. Fleming in 1929

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What are Zoonoses (definition)?

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Zoonoses can be transmitted (under natural conditions) between animals and humans (also through the environment)

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What are factors that are influencing new and reemerging zoonoses?

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  • climate change influencing arthropods
  • exotic pets
  • exotic foods (bush meat)
  • companion animals (Haustier)
  • Alteration in livestock management practices (Änderung in Viehhaltung)
  • Acquisition of new virulence traits (Erwerb neuer virulenter Eigenschaften)
  • Pathogen adaption to new host species
  • changes in land use
  • tourism
  • translocation of infected animals or persons
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Definitions:

  • symbiosis/mutualism
  • commensalism
  • parasitism
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  • symbiosis/mutualism: ecological interaction between 2 or more species where each species has a net benefit
  • commensalism: long-term biological interaction where one species benefits while the other neither benefits or is harmed
  • parasitism: relationship between two species where the parasite lives in or on the host and causes harm and is adapted to this way of life
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What is a pathogen?

(new Henle-Koch postulates)

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  • the phenotype of a pathogen is specific for all virulent strains of this species
  • inactivation of coding virulence(-associated) genes leads to attenuation (loss) of virulence
  • complementation of these genes restores virulence of the mutant
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What is an epidemic disease?

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mono-causal (dangerous) infectious disease with tendency to spread among a population affecting many individuals

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Definitions in epidemiology:

  • Morbidity
  • Mortality
  • Letality
  • Prevalence
  • Incidence
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Morbidity: diseased cases/population/period
  • Mortality: fatalities/population/period
  • Letality: fatalities/cases
  • Prevalence: infections/time point
  • Incidence: new infections/time period
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What are the different forms of epidemic diseases and their properties?

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  • endemic: no time limit, spatial limit, low morbidity
  • epidemic: time limit, spatial limit, high morbidity
  • pandemic: time limit, no spatial limit, high morbidity
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What does streptokinases do in regard to invasion of bacteria to host cells?

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=> break down of fibrin clots formed by coagulation by converting plasminogen into active plasmin


-> promotes bacterial escape from fibrinous thrombi and enables transmigration through extracellular matrix and vascular barriers

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Definitions:

  • obligate intracellular bacteria
  • facultative intracellular bacteria
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • obligate intracellular bacteria can not reproduce outside their host cells because their metabolism relies on host molecules
  • facultative intracellular bacteria are capable of living and reproducing either inside and outside cells.
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What are advantages of the intracellular lifestyle?

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  • protection against recognition by immune system
  • partial protection against antibiotics
  • nutrient rich habitat
  • overcome of barriers -> possibility to spread into deeper
  • dissemination --> spread into the blood stream
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the Henle-Koch Postulates and what are they for?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. detection by microscopy
  2. detection by culture
  3. proof of pathogenicity


=> for detection/classification of microorganisms as pathogens

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Q:

Who discovered Penicillin and when?

A:

A. Fleming in 1929

Q:

What are Zoonoses (definition)?

A:

Zoonoses can be transmitted (under natural conditions) between animals and humans (also through the environment)

Q:

What are factors that are influencing new and reemerging zoonoses?

A:
  • climate change influencing arthropods
  • exotic pets
  • exotic foods (bush meat)
  • companion animals (Haustier)
  • Alteration in livestock management practices (Änderung in Viehhaltung)
  • Acquisition of new virulence traits (Erwerb neuer virulenter Eigenschaften)
  • Pathogen adaption to new host species
  • changes in land use
  • tourism
  • translocation of infected animals or persons
Q:

Definitions:

  • symbiosis/mutualism
  • commensalism
  • parasitism
A:
  • symbiosis/mutualism: ecological interaction between 2 or more species where each species has a net benefit
  • commensalism: long-term biological interaction where one species benefits while the other neither benefits or is harmed
  • parasitism: relationship between two species where the parasite lives in or on the host and causes harm and is adapted to this way of life
Q:

What is a pathogen?

(new Henle-Koch postulates)

A:
  • the phenotype of a pathogen is specific for all virulent strains of this species
  • inactivation of coding virulence(-associated) genes leads to attenuation (loss) of virulence
  • complementation of these genes restores virulence of the mutant
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is an epidemic disease?

A:

mono-causal (dangerous) infectious disease with tendency to spread among a population affecting many individuals

Q:

Definitions in epidemiology:

  • Morbidity
  • Mortality
  • Letality
  • Prevalence
  • Incidence
A:
  • Morbidity: diseased cases/population/period
  • Mortality: fatalities/population/period
  • Letality: fatalities/cases
  • Prevalence: infections/time point
  • Incidence: new infections/time period
Q:

What are the different forms of epidemic diseases and their properties?

A:
  • endemic: no time limit, spatial limit, low morbidity
  • epidemic: time limit, spatial limit, high morbidity
  • pandemic: time limit, no spatial limit, high morbidity
Q:

What does streptokinases do in regard to invasion of bacteria to host cells?

A:

=> break down of fibrin clots formed by coagulation by converting plasminogen into active plasmin


-> promotes bacterial escape from fibrinous thrombi and enables transmigration through extracellular matrix and vascular barriers

Q:

Definitions:

  • obligate intracellular bacteria
  • facultative intracellular bacteria
A:
  • obligate intracellular bacteria can not reproduce outside their host cells because their metabolism relies on host molecules
  • facultative intracellular bacteria are capable of living and reproducing either inside and outside cells.
Q:

What are advantages of the intracellular lifestyle?

A:
  • protection against recognition by immune system
  • partial protection against antibiotics
  • nutrient rich habitat
  • overcome of barriers -> possibility to spread into deeper
  • dissemination --> spread into the blood stream
Q:

What are the Henle-Koch Postulates and what are they for?

A:
  1. detection by microscopy
  2. detection by culture
  3. proof of pathogenicity


=> for detection/classification of microorganisms as pathogens

Schwerpunkt 3: Infektionsimmunologie

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