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Lernmaterialien für Schwerpunkt 3: Infektionsimmunologie an der Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover

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What are the Henle-Koch Postulates and what are they for?

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  1. detection by microscopy
  2. detection by culture
  3. proof of pathogenicity


=> for detection/classification of microorganisms as pathogens

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What are routes of infection for pathogens?

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  • mucosal membranes (respiratory/gastrointestinal/urogenital tract)
  • outer epithelia (wounds, insect bites, ...)
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What are examples for negative-strand RNA viruses with unsegmented or segmented genome (Family and species)?

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unsegmented (Family (Species)):

  • Paramyxoviridae (Henipavirus, Rubulavirus, Morbillivirus...)
  • Rhabdoviridae (Vesiculovirus, Lyssavirus...)


segmented (Family (Species)):

  • Orthomyxoviridae (Influenza A viruses, Influenza B viruses...)


segmented ambisense RNA genome (Family (Species)):

  • Arenaviridae (Lassavirus)
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How is Taxoplasma gondii transmitted?

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  • oral uptake of sporulated oocysts from environment
  • ingestion of cysts in raw meat or prey animals, rarely tachyzoites from inner organs
  • diaplacental transmission of tachyzoites in cats, sheep, goats, humans (when primary infection shortly before or during pregnancy)
  • lactogenic transmission of tachyzoites in sheep and goats
  • (transmission of tachyzoites during organ transplantation)
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What damage do arthropods cause in which forms?

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Direct damage:

  • food intake (bite)
  • movement, migration
  • injection of toxins
  • excretion (saliva, feces)


Indirect damage:

--> vector/intermediate host of other pathogens (e.g. viruses or worms)

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What are characteristics of soft ticks (Argasidae)?

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  • development: egg - 1 larva - 4-7 nymphal stages - adult
  • no sexual dimorphism
  • integument weak sclerotized (Aushärtung d. Cuticula), leather-like
  • capitulum (Kopfbereich) only visible at the dorsal site during the larval stage
  • duration of blood uptake:
    • larvae 5-10 days
    • nymphs and adults 15-120 min
  • oviposition: 3-6 times, ~80 eggs each
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What are the 2 distinct developmental stages of Leishmaniasis and what induces the stage shift?

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  • Promastigote (vector)
  • Amastigote (host)
  • stage shift is induced by pH, temperature and other triggers
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What are the different strategies of virus entry and uncoating?

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Entry mechanisms:

  • receptor-mediated endocytosis (Clathrin vesicles)
  • Membrane fusion


Uncoating:

  • at the plasma membrane
  • within endosomes
  • at the nuclear membrane
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What is the family of Influenza viruses and what Geni are within the family?

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Family: Orthomyxoviridae (myxo = Schleim)


Geni:

  • Influenzavirus A
  • Influenzavirus B
  • Influenzavirus C
  • Thogotovirus
  • Isavirus
  • Quaranjavirus
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What is the structure of Retrovirus particles?

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  • form: spherical, pleomorphic, 80-100 nm
  • envelope: lipid bilayer, envelope proteins SU & TM
  • capsid: CA protein, isometric or conical
  • genome: single stranded (+) RNA, dimeric, 5' cap structure, 3' poly A-tail
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Who discovered Penicillin and when?

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A. Fleming in 1929

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What are properties of natural killer cells (NK cells)?

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  • different from T and B cells
  • no classical antigen receptors
  • cellular component of innate immune system
  • recognition and elimination of abnormal cells such as virus-infected cells and tumor cells
  • induction of apoptosis in target cells (by perforin/granzyme-dependent mechanisms)
  • involved in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
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Q:

What are the Henle-Koch Postulates and what are they for?

A:
  1. detection by microscopy
  2. detection by culture
  3. proof of pathogenicity


=> for detection/classification of microorganisms as pathogens

Q:

What are routes of infection for pathogens?

A:
  • mucosal membranes (respiratory/gastrointestinal/urogenital tract)
  • outer epithelia (wounds, insect bites, ...)
Q:

What are examples for negative-strand RNA viruses with unsegmented or segmented genome (Family and species)?

A:

unsegmented (Family (Species)):

  • Paramyxoviridae (Henipavirus, Rubulavirus, Morbillivirus...)
  • Rhabdoviridae (Vesiculovirus, Lyssavirus...)


segmented (Family (Species)):

  • Orthomyxoviridae (Influenza A viruses, Influenza B viruses...)


segmented ambisense RNA genome (Family (Species)):

  • Arenaviridae (Lassavirus)
Q:

How is Taxoplasma gondii transmitted?

A:
  • oral uptake of sporulated oocysts from environment
  • ingestion of cysts in raw meat or prey animals, rarely tachyzoites from inner organs
  • diaplacental transmission of tachyzoites in cats, sheep, goats, humans (when primary infection shortly before or during pregnancy)
  • lactogenic transmission of tachyzoites in sheep and goats
  • (transmission of tachyzoites during organ transplantation)
Q:

What damage do arthropods cause in which forms?

A:

Direct damage:

  • food intake (bite)
  • movement, migration
  • injection of toxins
  • excretion (saliva, feces)


Indirect damage:

--> vector/intermediate host of other pathogens (e.g. viruses or worms)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are characteristics of soft ticks (Argasidae)?

A:
  • development: egg - 1 larva - 4-7 nymphal stages - adult
  • no sexual dimorphism
  • integument weak sclerotized (Aushärtung d. Cuticula), leather-like
  • capitulum (Kopfbereich) only visible at the dorsal site during the larval stage
  • duration of blood uptake:
    • larvae 5-10 days
    • nymphs and adults 15-120 min
  • oviposition: 3-6 times, ~80 eggs each
Q:

What are the 2 distinct developmental stages of Leishmaniasis and what induces the stage shift?

A:
  • Promastigote (vector)
  • Amastigote (host)
  • stage shift is induced by pH, temperature and other triggers
Q:

What are the different strategies of virus entry and uncoating?

A:

Entry mechanisms:

  • receptor-mediated endocytosis (Clathrin vesicles)
  • Membrane fusion


Uncoating:

  • at the plasma membrane
  • within endosomes
  • at the nuclear membrane
Q:

What is the family of Influenza viruses and what Geni are within the family?

A:

Family: Orthomyxoviridae (myxo = Schleim)


Geni:

  • Influenzavirus A
  • Influenzavirus B
  • Influenzavirus C
  • Thogotovirus
  • Isavirus
  • Quaranjavirus
Q:

What is the structure of Retrovirus particles?

A:
  • form: spherical, pleomorphic, 80-100 nm
  • envelope: lipid bilayer, envelope proteins SU & TM
  • capsid: CA protein, isometric or conical
  • genome: single stranded (+) RNA, dimeric, 5' cap structure, 3' poly A-tail
Q:

Who discovered Penicillin and when?

A:

A. Fleming in 1929

Q:

What are properties of natural killer cells (NK cells)?

A:
  • different from T and B cells
  • no classical antigen receptors
  • cellular component of innate immune system
  • recognition and elimination of abnormal cells such as virus-infected cells and tumor cells
  • induction of apoptosis in target cells (by perforin/granzyme-dependent mechanisms)
  • involved in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
Schwerpunkt 3: Infektionsimmunologie

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