Sales an der Technische Hochschule Nürnberg | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Sales an der Technische Hochschule Nürnberg

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the reanson behind the slobalization?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- costs of shipping goods have stopped falling --> oversears logistics become a major ost block.

--> multinationla firms found that global expansion burns money and local rivals eat them alive

- activity shifting towards services which are harder to sell across borders (scissors can be exporter, hairdressers can't

- chinese manufacturing needs to import fewer parts.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the major reasons for re shoring trend of the MNCs in the recent decade?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- political pressure, improvement of brand image (e.g. made in DE), less shipping, decrease of dependence, improvement of product quality

- external and internal driver

- COO- country of origin effect

- Germans are excited to buy German products --> consumer behaviour, emoition

- profit driving: producing in China means additional shipping & made in DE can have a higher price

- quality of production: depending on partner it can be flucuating in China, in DE ist is very stable, only small differences in quality.

- governmental promotion: if production goes bak to the US.

- Driving factors: looking for better profit, quality and public opinion.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the core principles of GATT

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Most Favord Nation (MFN) Treatment: Each contracting party is required to provide to all other contracting parties the same conditions of trade as the most favorable terms.


Reciprocity: Each contracting party has a right e.g. to access to markets of ther partners on the MFN basis


Equal treatment: imported and locally-produced goods should be treated equally - at least after the oreign goods have entered the market ( called als non-discrimination priciple)


Free trade: ideal of world-wide free trade gradually through negotiations lowering trade barriers including custom duties (tariffs) & non-tariff-restrictions ( import quaotas, technical issues)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the extension fo GATT to WTO?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

GATS (general agreement on trade & services) which regulates the cross-border trade in service, including financial service, telecommunications, power & logistics services.


TRIPS (Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), defines property rights for the improvement of trade mark protection & prevention of product piracy & brand piracy


TRIMS (Agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures) defines general rules for implementation & protection of direct investment measures

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the major functions of the WTO today?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Promote & liberalize world trade 

- keep MFN as formal princiople for multi-lateral co-operation between the members

- allowing establishment of regional trade blocks as supplement

- further reduction of trade barriers focused on non-tariffs areas

- monitoring nationsl trade policies

 

Forum for national governments for trade negotiation & to settle trade disputes


Technical assistance for developing countries.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the contributions and limits of national organizations?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Contributions:

- substantioal reduction of tariff trade barriers in the early years

- settlement of dispute in international trade

- promotion and support of economic development

- guidelines & agreements in certain economic areas


Limits

- no suprational institution, therefore no sufficient enforcement competences against global great power.

- decision process base on consensus.

- tension balance between world-wide free trade ideal on the one hand & national/regional intrest on the other hand

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the main motivations of regional tarding blocks?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Exeptions of the MFN rules of the WTO-agreement

- keep multi-lateral co-operations principle

- further reduction of free trade & regional economic expansion

- balnce between political & economic interests

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the types of regional trading blocks?



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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

5 Political union: complete integration of political & economic policy (e.g. EU of the future)


4 Monetary union: Common currency, free movement of capital & labour, integrated agreement with uniform tariff policy toward non.- memeber countreis and within region e.g. Euro zone


3 common market: free movement of cpital & labour within the market, integrated agreement with uniform tariff poliies toward non-member countries and within e.g. EU


2 custom union: Uniform tariff policies towards non menber countries and reduction of tariffs, quotas and other barriers (MErcosur, APEC)


1 Free trade area: group of countries sign an agreement to reduce tariffs, quotas & other barriers ( Nafta, rcep, asean)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the difference between a FDI and portfolio investment?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FDI

- ownership in a resident entity in another economy

- control & major influenceas key motivation

- long term oriented interest


Portfolio investment

- shared participation in a resident entity 

- finacial return as key motivation

- mid- and short term oriented 

(e.g. investment banking, private company, invest in 10 different companies)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the long term motivations and the short term triggers for FDIs?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Strategic motivations (major drivers)

- more efficient development of local market (you have to be close to customer, that is why you need local market)

- realize cost advantage of the host country

- access to relecant know-how & information (to get more advanced technology. The best M&A need it for future development of the company.


Occasional trigger (Timing)

- follow market leader in respective branch (e.g.  India is a good future market)

- follow the customer (VW needs tomove suppliers to china)

- fulfill regulatory requirements: factory in local country

- benefit from governmental promotion program

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the 4P's that have to be considered when talking about the international market entry strategy?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Price: same price in every country? or different prices in different countries?


Place: especially sales distribution & sales channels (no tension field, just what kind of strategies you have


Promotion: Today probably the website, same website for every country or different websites/ads?


Tension field: impacts price, product and promotion, If you want to introduce the same product in ever country (standardization) or different products in different countries (differentiation.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the 4 basic asprcts of globalizatio according to IMF

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. Trade & transactions: very important for DE especially

2. Capital & investment movements: it is all over the world today.

3. Migration & movement of people employees move to other countries but migration also means more flexibiity for people

4. Dissemination of knowledge: information exchange through the internet & technology is easier, especially smartphones make it easier

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

What are the reanson behind the slobalization?

A:

- costs of shipping goods have stopped falling --> oversears logistics become a major ost block.

--> multinationla firms found that global expansion burns money and local rivals eat them alive

- activity shifting towards services which are harder to sell across borders (scissors can be exporter, hairdressers can't

- chinese manufacturing needs to import fewer parts.

Q:

What are the major reasons for re shoring trend of the MNCs in the recent decade?

A:

- political pressure, improvement of brand image (e.g. made in DE), less shipping, decrease of dependence, improvement of product quality

- external and internal driver

- COO- country of origin effect

- Germans are excited to buy German products --> consumer behaviour, emoition

- profit driving: producing in China means additional shipping & made in DE can have a higher price

- quality of production: depending on partner it can be flucuating in China, in DE ist is very stable, only small differences in quality.

- governmental promotion: if production goes bak to the US.

- Driving factors: looking for better profit, quality and public opinion.


Q:

What are the core principles of GATT

A:

Most Favord Nation (MFN) Treatment: Each contracting party is required to provide to all other contracting parties the same conditions of trade as the most favorable terms.


Reciprocity: Each contracting party has a right e.g. to access to markets of ther partners on the MFN basis


Equal treatment: imported and locally-produced goods should be treated equally - at least after the oreign goods have entered the market ( called als non-discrimination priciple)


Free trade: ideal of world-wide free trade gradually through negotiations lowering trade barriers including custom duties (tariffs) & non-tariff-restrictions ( import quaotas, technical issues)

Q:

What is the extension fo GATT to WTO?

A:

GATS (general agreement on trade & services) which regulates the cross-border trade in service, including financial service, telecommunications, power & logistics services.


TRIPS (Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), defines property rights for the improvement of trade mark protection & prevention of product piracy & brand piracy


TRIMS (Agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures) defines general rules for implementation & protection of direct investment measures

Q:

What are the major functions of the WTO today?

A:

Promote & liberalize world trade 

- keep MFN as formal princiople for multi-lateral co-operation between the members

- allowing establishment of regional trade blocks as supplement

- further reduction of trade barriers focused on non-tariffs areas

- monitoring nationsl trade policies

 

Forum for national governments for trade negotiation & to settle trade disputes


Technical assistance for developing countries.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are the contributions and limits of national organizations?

A:

Contributions:

- substantioal reduction of tariff trade barriers in the early years

- settlement of dispute in international trade

- promotion and support of economic development

- guidelines & agreements in certain economic areas


Limits

- no suprational institution, therefore no sufficient enforcement competences against global great power.

- decision process base on consensus.

- tension balance between world-wide free trade ideal on the one hand & national/regional intrest on the other hand

Q:

What are the main motivations of regional tarding blocks?

A:

- Exeptions of the MFN rules of the WTO-agreement

- keep multi-lateral co-operations principle

- further reduction of free trade & regional economic expansion

- balnce between political & economic interests

Q:

What are the types of regional trading blocks?



A:

5 Political union: complete integration of political & economic policy (e.g. EU of the future)


4 Monetary union: Common currency, free movement of capital & labour, integrated agreement with uniform tariff policy toward non.- memeber countreis and within region e.g. Euro zone


3 common market: free movement of cpital & labour within the market, integrated agreement with uniform tariff poliies toward non-member countries and within e.g. EU


2 custom union: Uniform tariff policies towards non menber countries and reduction of tariffs, quotas and other barriers (MErcosur, APEC)


1 Free trade area: group of countries sign an agreement to reduce tariffs, quotas & other barriers ( Nafta, rcep, asean)

Q:

What is the difference between a FDI and portfolio investment?


A:

FDI

- ownership in a resident entity in another economy

- control & major influenceas key motivation

- long term oriented interest


Portfolio investment

- shared participation in a resident entity 

- finacial return as key motivation

- mid- and short term oriented 

(e.g. investment banking, private company, invest in 10 different companies)

Q:

What are the long term motivations and the short term triggers for FDIs?

A:

Strategic motivations (major drivers)

- more efficient development of local market (you have to be close to customer, that is why you need local market)

- realize cost advantage of the host country

- access to relecant know-how & information (to get more advanced technology. The best M&A need it for future development of the company.


Occasional trigger (Timing)

- follow market leader in respective branch (e.g.  India is a good future market)

- follow the customer (VW needs tomove suppliers to china)

- fulfill regulatory requirements: factory in local country

- benefit from governmental promotion program

Q:

What are the 4P's that have to be considered when talking about the international market entry strategy?

A:

Price: same price in every country? or different prices in different countries?


Place: especially sales distribution & sales channels (no tension field, just what kind of strategies you have


Promotion: Today probably the website, same website for every country or different websites/ads?


Tension field: impacts price, product and promotion, If you want to introduce the same product in ever country (standardization) or different products in different countries (differentiation.

Q:

What are the 4 basic asprcts of globalizatio according to IMF

A:

1. Trade & transactions: very important for DE especially

2. Capital & investment movements: it is all over the world today.

3. Migration & movement of people employees move to other countries but migration also means more flexibiity for people

4. Dissemination of knowledge: information exchange through the internet & technology is easier, especially smartphones make it easier

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