Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen

Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen

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Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What is immunology? 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What is the immune system? 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

How do vaccines work? 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What do you know about the adaptive immune system?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What do you know about the innate immune system?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

Describe the process of haematopoiesis. What are the two main blood cell lineages?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What tissues are involved in immune defence?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What are the various ways that barrier tissues contribute to the body’s defences?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What are primary and secondary lymphoid tissues? Name them.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What is the role of primary lymphoid tissues?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What is the main function of secondary lymphoid tissues?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What are the main cell types of the innate immune system?

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

Immunology I

What is immunology? 
Immunology describes "the study of the immune system" . ​ The immune system is made up of two major parts the adaptive immunity​ and the ​innate immunity.​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​

Immunology I

What is the immune system? 
The immune system is a vast network of cells and tissues spread throughout the body constantly on the lookout for pathogens and once spotted, a complex immune response is mounted. It involves many types of cells, organs, proteins and tissues. Crucially, it can distinguish our tissue from foreign tissue - self from non-self. Dead and faulty cells are also recognized and cleared away by the immune system. 

Immunology I

How do vaccines work? 
Vaccines work by introducing an "immunological memory". ​It starts with the activation of the adaptive immune system​, consisting of two types of lymphocytes: B and T cells. We have many B and T cells, all of which have the potential to bind a different "antigen. In an infection, or this case immunisation, the T and B cells that recognise the specific antigen proliferation, which is called clonal expansion. ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​

Immunology I

What do you know about the adaptive immune system?

Adaptive immunity is defined as an acquired/”learned” part of the immune system. It specifically recognises particular antigens, but it needs to be primed on these antigens in the first place. It generates a so-called “memory”. The adaptive part of the immune system relies on the two types of lymphocytes the B cells and T cells. B cells are responsible for the productions of antibodies while T-cells are responsible for cytokine production and direct killing of “hostile” particles.

Immunology I

What do you know about the innate immune system?

The innate immunity on the other hand is defined as the in-born and “natural” part of the immune system. It reacts in a non-specific way by recognising general patterns that are associated with infection or tissue damage. It acts immediately, resulting in fever, redness, and swelling. It also involves other leukocyte populations like monocytes and macrophages as well as granulocytes (e.g. neutrophils).

Immunology I

Describe the process of haematopoiesis. What are the two main blood cell lineages?

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells. This process is called hematopoiesis. The process occurs in the bone marrow where HSCs can develop into either common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or common myeloid progenitor (CMP). 

In the bone marrow, CLP can become pro-T, pro-B, NK-cells or immature dendritic cells. B-cells, T-cells and NK cells continue onto the lymph nodes while the immature dendritic cells move to tissue and from there continue into the lymph nodes where they become mature dendritic cells. Effector cells are plasma cells, activated T-cells and activated NK-cells.

The myeloid branch of development starts with the CMP in the bone marrow where it can differentiate into either a granulocyte/macrophage progenitor or a megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor. From there the granulocyte/macrophage progenitor can differentiate into the granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophil, basophil), unknown precursor of a mast cell or a monocyte. Megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor differentiates into either a megakaryocyte or an erythroblast while still in the bone marrow. In the blood, they become platelets/thrombocytes respectively erythrocytes.  The unknown precursor of a mast cell and macrophage while moving into the tissue. 

Immunology I

What tissues are involved in immune defence?

  • Lymphoid tissue: [primary (bone marrow, thymus), secondary (lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer’s patch), tertiary]
  • Circulatory system (blood, lymph)
  • Non-lymphoid (peripheral) tissues [barrier tissues (skin, mucosae), internal organs, everything else!]

Immunology I

What are the various ways that barrier tissues contribute to the body’s defences?

Mechanical, chemical and microbiological defences

Immunology I

What are primary and secondary lymphoid tissues? Name them.

  • Primary – bone marrow, thymus
  • Secondary – lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer’s patch 

Immunology I

What is the role of primary lymphoid tissues?

The lymphoid tissues can be divided into primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Primary lymphoid tissues are sites where lymphocytes develop from progenitor cells into functional and mature lymphocytes. The major primary lymphoid tissue is the marrow, the site where all lymphocyte progenitor cells reside and initially differentiate. The other primary lymphoid tissue is the thymus, the site where progenitor cells from the marrow differentiate into mature thymus-derived (T) cells.

Immunology I

What is the main function of secondary lymphoid tissues?

Secondary lymphoid tissues are sites where lymphocytes interact with each other and non-lymphoid cells in which adaptive immune responses are initiated. These include the spleen white pulp, lymph nodes, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT).

Lymphocytes arise from stem cells in BM and mature in primary lymphoid organs. They migrate via blood to secondary lymphoid organs. Lymph carries antigen from periphery to lymph nodes and recirculating lymphocytes back to the bloodstream.

Immunology I

What are the main cell types of the innate immune system?

neutrophils, eosinophil, basophil, monocyte (all Granulocytes), NK cells and macrophages

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