Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen

Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen

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Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

Why is it important to study mucosal immunity?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

Which tissues are mucosal tissues?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What are memory cells? What is their main function?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What are follicular helper cells?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What are the signals required for priming of Th1 cells? What cytokines to they produce? What is their main function?

– Th1

– Th2

– Th17

– Treg

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What are the main types of T helper cells?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What are the main mechanisms that CTLs use to kill target cells?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

How do CTLs recognise which target cells to kill?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What is the main type of CD8+ effector cell? What is their main function?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What are the requirements for priming of CD8+ T cells?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

What is co-stimulation?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

Can you name examples of mucosal infections?

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Immunology I an der RWTH Aachen auf StudySmarter:

Immunology I

Why is it important to study mucosal immunity?

It houses billions of commensal microorganisms, has a major surface area of interaction and is thus an entry point for many pathogens.

Immunology I

Which tissues are mucosal tissues?

The respiratory tract and gastro internal tract. Fundamentally tissue which allows exchange between inside and outside.

Immunology I

What are memory cells? What is their main function?

Memory cells are further differentiated effector cells, which turned into a special long-lived cell type. Their main function is to provide protection against repeated infection with the same pathogen. Memory cells are activated faster and have a lower threshold of activation compared to naïve T cells. They are located throughout the body (e.g. peripheral tissues, recirculating between blood and lymph nodes or lymph node resident).

Immunology I

What are follicular helper cells?

Are Th cells that enter the B cell and upon a cognate interaction Tfh (follicular helper T cells) cells can help B cells develop into effector B cells, also known as plasma cells.

Immunology I

What are the signals required for priming of Th1 cells? What cytokines to they produce? What is their main function?

– Th1

– Th2

– Th17

– Treg

Depending on the nature of signal 3, CD4+ T cells will differentiate into different types of CD4+ effector – T helper (Th) cells. 

  • Th1: The signals required for priming of Th1 cells are the presence of cytokine IL-12 and IFNγ (signal 3). Upon the stimulation with T-bet, whose transcription factor is induced by IL-12 in developing T cells, Th1 cells produce IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-2. The main function of Th1 cells is to provide protection against intracellular pathogens including viruses, bacteria (e.g. Salmonella) or parasites (e.g. Leishmania). They affect macrophage activation, priming of CTLs and provide help to B cells. 
  • Th2: The signals required for priming of Th2 cells is the presence of cytokine IL-4. GATA-3, whose transcription factor is induced by IL-4 in developing T cells, induces Th2 cells to produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. The main function of Th2 cells is to provide protection from extracellular pathogens, notable large extracellular parasites (worm, fungi). They effect neutralising antibody production. 
  • Th17: The signal required for priming Th17 cells is the combined effect of cytokines IL-6 and TGFß (signal 3). Upon the stimulation with RORγ, Th17 cells produce IL-17 and IL-22. The main function of Th17 is to provide protection against extracellular pathogens (especially fungi) and maintain epithelia at barrier surfaces. They enhance antibody production at barrier surfaces and have an effect on the maintenance of epithelium. 

Tregs:  The priming of Tregs cells is induced by TGFß (signal 3), an anti-flammatory cytokine constitutively produced by DCs. Other factors such as IL-10 and retinoie acid can also help their development. TGFß induces the transcription factor FoxP3 in developing T cells. FoxP3 induces the production of regulatory cytokines TGFß and IL-10 and upregulation of CTLA-4. The main function of Tregs is to maintain immunological tolerance to harmless antigens. It inhibits and controls the immune responses and is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. 

Immunology I

What are the main types of T helper cells?

Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells (Tregs)

Immunology I

What are the main mechanisms that CTLs use to kill target cells?

CTLs use three main mechanisms to kill target cells:

  • Directional secretion of cytotoxic granules: 
    1. Perforin (forms pores in the target cells) 
    2. Granzymes (proteases which induce apoptosis in target cells)
  • Fas ligand (FasL) expression by CTLs
    1. Binds Fas on target cells
    2. Initiates apoptosis
  • Secretion of IFNγ and TFNαcan contribute to killing the development of immune response

Immunology I

How do CTLs recognise which target cells to kill?

They use TCR and CD8 to bind peptides presented on MHC class I on the surface of any nucleated cell. MHC I presents endogenous antigens, peptides derived from cytoplasmic proteins. Important in defence against intracellular pathogens.

Immunology I

What is the main type of CD8+ effector cell? What is their main function?

The main type is cytotoxic T cells. Their main function is the direct killing of target cells such as virus-infected or cancer cells. They induce apoptosis (programmed cell death), not necrosis.

Immunology I

What are the requirements for priming of CD8+ T cells?

For survival and differentiation the developing CD8+ T cells require signal 3:

  • IL-12 produced by activated DCs
  • IFNγ and IL-2 produced by type 1 helper (Th1) cells
  • CD40-CD40L interaction from “licenced” DCs

If CD8+ T cells receive sufficient stimuli from signals 1, 2 and 3 they will differentiate into CD8+ effector cells – cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs).

Immunology I

What is co-stimulation?

Co-stimulation is the second signal which is needed for T cell priming. Co-stimulation si provided by the interaction of CD28 on T cells. And B7 molecules (CD80 and CD86) on DCs. It induces expression of the high-affinity receptor for IL-2, which induces T cell proliferation.

Immunology I

Can you name examples of mucosal infections?

Acute respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, measles, whooping cough, Hepatitis B, roundworm, and hookworm

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