Surg - Principles Of Surgery an der RCSI-Medical University Of Bahrain | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Surg - Principles of Surgery an der RCSI-Medical University of Bahrain

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Acute mesenteric ischaemia

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-  Risks: elderly, atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disease, history of chronic mesenteric ischemia. 

Ask for associated vomiting, diarrhea, ileus. 

- Typically very severe pain unrelieved by analgesia.

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gastroenteritis

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Diarrhea +/- blood / mucus. 

Vomit.

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Chronic mesenteric ischaemia

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Post-prandial pain. 

Weight loss. 

Change in bowel habit.

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Bowel obstruction

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- Vomit. Green in color (bilious) or brown (faeculent). 

- Constipation. Constipation (no flatus in complete obstruction). 

- distension. 

- perforation (sudden)

- SBO (high): first, bilious vomit; later, constipation.

- On exam: decreased resonance on percussion; 

- LBO (low): first, constipation; later, lazy vomit. 

On exam: distension, tympanic abdomen, high pitched bowel sounds.

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Rectal bleeding

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- Haemorrhoids or anal bleeding: bright red in colour and only on wiping? 

- Rectal bleeding: on the surface of the stool? 

- Colonic bleeding: dark red in colour, mixed up with the stool, or with clots? 

- Proximal colonic bleeding: is stool maroon red in colour and loose? 

- Dyschezia: “Is it painful?” Painful bleeding would suggest an anal fissure. Haemorrhoids are not typically painful unless thrombosed

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Tenesmus

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Feeling of not fully emptying bowels after a bowel motion. Suggests low rectal tumour.

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Gastro-oesophageal reflux / heartburn

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sis

Bitter tasting / sour fluid in throat or mouth.

— Ask how frequent it occurs, association with food. 

— Relieving factors (lying flat, food avoidance).

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Rest pain

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Severe, burning pain in limb affected by inadequate arterial flow, present at rest. Pain is neuropathic in nature due to neuronal ischaemia. 

— “Worse at nighttime?” 

— “Do you have to hang your leg over the side of the bed?” 

— “Do you have to walk around your room at night to relieve the pain?”

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Altered bowel habit

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- May indicate underlying bowel cancer or inflammatory bowel disease. 

- May be change in frequency, constipation or change in stool consistency.

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Dysuria

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Pain on micturition. 

— Burning when you pass water? 

— Pain in lower abdomen? 

— Nocturia, frequency.

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Haematuria

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Blood in the urine 

- “Does the blood occur at the start of urination?” (Suggests bladder origin) 

- “Does the blood appear at the end of urination, or during urination?” (Suggests prostatic or penile origin)

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Claudication

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Pain in calf, thigh or buttock precipitated by exercise and relieved by rest due to inadequate blood flow. 

— Claudication distance: “How far can you walk before needing a rest?” 

— “How long do you typically rest for before recommencing walking?” 

— “When did the pain on walking first begin?” 

— “Did your leg go suddenly cold and then recover with the onset of calf pain on walking?”

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  • 8 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Surg - Principles of Surgery Kurs an der RCSI-Medical University of Bahrain - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Acute mesenteric ischaemia

A:

-  Risks: elderly, atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disease, history of chronic mesenteric ischemia. 

Ask for associated vomiting, diarrhea, ileus. 

- Typically very severe pain unrelieved by analgesia.

Q:

gastroenteritis

A:

Diarrhea +/- blood / mucus. 

Vomit.

Q:

Chronic mesenteric ischaemia

A:

Post-prandial pain. 

Weight loss. 

Change in bowel habit.

Q:

Bowel obstruction

A:

- Vomit. Green in color (bilious) or brown (faeculent). 

- Constipation. Constipation (no flatus in complete obstruction). 

- distension. 

- perforation (sudden)

- SBO (high): first, bilious vomit; later, constipation.

- On exam: decreased resonance on percussion; 

- LBO (low): first, constipation; later, lazy vomit. 

On exam: distension, tympanic abdomen, high pitched bowel sounds.

Q:

Rectal bleeding

A:

- Haemorrhoids or anal bleeding: bright red in colour and only on wiping? 

- Rectal bleeding: on the surface of the stool? 

- Colonic bleeding: dark red in colour, mixed up with the stool, or with clots? 

- Proximal colonic bleeding: is stool maroon red in colour and loose? 

- Dyschezia: “Is it painful?” Painful bleeding would suggest an anal fissure. Haemorrhoids are not typically painful unless thrombosed

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Q:

Tenesmus

A:

Feeling of not fully emptying bowels after a bowel motion. Suggests low rectal tumour.

Q:



Gastro-oesophageal reflux / heartburn

A:

sis

Bitter tasting / sour fluid in throat or mouth.

— Ask how frequent it occurs, association with food. 

— Relieving factors (lying flat, food avoidance).

Q:

Rest pain

A:

Severe, burning pain in limb affected by inadequate arterial flow, present at rest. Pain is neuropathic in nature due to neuronal ischaemia. 

— “Worse at nighttime?” 

— “Do you have to hang your leg over the side of the bed?” 

— “Do you have to walk around your room at night to relieve the pain?”

Q:

Altered bowel habit

A:

- May indicate underlying bowel cancer or inflammatory bowel disease. 

- May be change in frequency, constipation or change in stool consistency.

Q:

Dysuria

A:

Pain on micturition. 

— Burning when you pass water? 

— Pain in lower abdomen? 

— Nocturia, frequency.

Q:

Haematuria

A:

- Blood in the urine 

- “Does the blood occur at the start of urination?” (Suggests bladder origin) 

- “Does the blood appear at the end of urination, or during urination?” (Suggests prostatic or penile origin)

Q:

Claudication

A:

Pain in calf, thigh or buttock precipitated by exercise and relieved by rest due to inadequate blood flow. 

— Claudication distance: “How far can you walk before needing a rest?” 

— “How long do you typically rest for before recommencing walking?” 

— “When did the pain on walking first begin?” 

— “Did your leg go suddenly cold and then recover with the onset of calf pain on walking?”

Surg - Principles of Surgery

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