Exam Histology an der Pomeranian Academy Of Medicine In Szczecin | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

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developement of respiratory - lower respiratory

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1. Initially the respiratory
diverticulum is in open
communication with the
foregut
2. Respiratory diverticulum
expands caudally and
becomes partially
separated from foregut by
2 longitudinal
tracheoesophageal ridges
(folds)
3. Tracheoesophageal folds
fuse together and form the
tracheoesophageal
septum

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tracheoesophageal septum - developement

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• tracheoesophageal septum
separates respiratory
diverticulum from the rest of the foregut
– divides the primary foregut into the:
• oroparynx and
esophagus (dorsal)
• respiratory diverticulum
(ventral)
– laryngotracheal tube
(proximal part)
– lung bud (distal part)

The caudal end of the respiratory diverticulum enlarges
to form the lung bud, which is surrounded by splanchnic mesenchyme

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trahea - developement

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• The epithelium and glands of the trachea develop from the
endoderm of the laryngotracheal tube
• The cartilage, connective tissue, and smooth muscle are
derived from the surrounding splanchnic mesenchyme

▪8th week of gestation - 16-20 tracheal cartilages
▪10th week of gestation - microvili and cilia on epithelial cells
▪12th week of gestation - tracheal glands

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bronchi

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First round of branching
• At the end of 4th/beginning of 5th week (26-28 day) the lung bud divides into two primary bronchial buds (rudiments
of the lungs), which enlarge to form the right and left primary bronchi.



Second round of branching – at the end of the 5th week
• each primary bronchi divides into secondary (lobular) bronchi – (3 right and 2 left).



Third round of branching - 6th - 8th week
• the 2nd (lobar) bronchi undergo progressive branching to form the
segmental bronchi (10 in the right, 8/9 in the left lung)
– Each segmental bronchus with surrounding mass of mesenchyme (with
capillaries, and smooth muscle cells) becomes a bronchopulmonary
segment (segment in a lung)

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bronchi and bronchioles

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Up to the 16th week – next 13-14
branching → respiratory tree
produces terminal bronchioles
(17 generation of branching)
Between the 16/17 – 24th week each
terminal bronchiole divides into two
or more respiratory bronchioles

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splanchnic mesenchyme - derivatives

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• The smooth muscle, connective tissue, and cartilaginous plates in the bronchi are derived from  splanchnic mesenchyme



Splanchnic mesenchyme → visceral pleura
Somatic mesoderm → parietal pleura

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during developement of respiratory

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• Caudolateral growth of lung buds result in its expand into coelomic cavity <-- pericardioperitoneal canals (lie on each side of the foregut)

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pleural cavities

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• pericardioperitoneal canals are separated from:
– peritoneal cavity
– pericardial cavity
by pleuroperitoneal and pleuropericardial folds that form
primitive pleural cavities  space between parietal and visceral pleura

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pseudoglandular phase (8-16 weeks)

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• 16 - 17 generations of air-conducting bronchial (up to the terminal bronchioles) is formed

– by 16th week (next 14-15 more branchings), the respiratory tree produces small branches called terminal bronchioles



• The conducting portion of respiratory system is lined by cuboidal epithelial cells → precursor cells for the:

• ciliated epithelium (the first ciliated epithelial cells occur at 13th week
ofpregnancy)
• secretory cells


• By the 16th week all major elements of the lung are formed (except those involved with gas exchange)
• Respiration is not possible!
– Fetuses born during this period are unable to survive


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canalicular phase (16-24/26 week)

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• Canalicular phase overlaps the pseudoglandular phase → cranial
segments of lungs mature faster than the caudal region

• The lumen of the bronchi and terminal
bronchioles become larger and the lung
tissue becomes higly vascular
• By 24 weeks each terminal bronchiole
has given rise to 2/more respiratory bronchioles, that divide into 3-6 tubular/canalicular alveolar ducts



• In the respiratory portion, appear the first typically lung-specific cells -
type II pneumocytes (part of these cuboidal cells mainly duringnext phase
differentiate into type I pneumocytes)


• At the end of 24th week the lumen of the canaliculi becomes wider and form a few terminal sacs (primordial, primary acini)
mainly in cranial regions  invasion of capillaries into the septa between the primary acinus (initiation of blood-air barrier formation → primary septa)



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saccular phase (terminal sac phase )(26-birth)

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• last trimester: many more terminal sacs develop (the last subdivision
of the respiratory airpassages), their epithelium become very thin
• at birth, all generations of respiratory branches have been generated
(the sacculi correspond to the later mature alveoli)
• the numer of terminal sacculi increase
• terminal sacculi are lined with type I and type II pneumocytes

• between the sacculi - connective tissue primary septa (with many cells;
the proportion of collagen and elastic fibers is small → important for epithelium
differentiation and angiogenesis;


• Many more terminal saccules developed
• The initiate contact between type I pneumocyte and endothelial cells establishes
the blood-air barrier, permitting at a certain level gas exchange for survival
capillary network proliferates
• The
around the developing alveoli
• The type II pneumocytes continue surfactant production
(need to expansion of terminal sacs = primordial alveoli) (reduces surface tension
and facilitates expansion ofthe alveoli during breathing)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

developement of respiratory system

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• The primordium of the lower
respiratory system
(laryngotracheal groove) develops in about 4 week (22nd day,
4 mm-length embryo)
• Arises from endoderm of the ventral wall of the caudal part of
foregut (caudally from 4th pair of laryngeal pouches)
• By the end of 4th week,
laryngotracheal groove enlarges and
evaginates to form
the respiratory diverticulum

– signals from the surrounding
mesenchyme (→FGFs) determine
the localization of the bud along the
gut tube and stimulate the ventrocaudal grow

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Q:

developement of respiratory - lower respiratory

A:

1. Initially the respiratory
diverticulum is in open
communication with the
foregut
2. Respiratory diverticulum
expands caudally and
becomes partially
separated from foregut by
2 longitudinal
tracheoesophageal ridges
(folds)
3. Tracheoesophageal folds
fuse together and form the
tracheoesophageal
septum

Q:

tracheoesophageal septum - developement

A:

• tracheoesophageal septum
separates respiratory
diverticulum from the rest of the foregut
– divides the primary foregut into the:
• oroparynx and
esophagus (dorsal)
• respiratory diverticulum
(ventral)
– laryngotracheal tube
(proximal part)
– lung bud (distal part)

The caudal end of the respiratory diverticulum enlarges
to form the lung bud, which is surrounded by splanchnic mesenchyme

Q:

trahea - developement

A:

• The epithelium and glands of the trachea develop from the
endoderm of the laryngotracheal tube
• The cartilage, connective tissue, and smooth muscle are
derived from the surrounding splanchnic mesenchyme

▪8th week of gestation - 16-20 tracheal cartilages
▪10th week of gestation - microvili and cilia on epithelial cells
▪12th week of gestation - tracheal glands

Q:

bronchi

A:

First round of branching
• At the end of 4th/beginning of 5th week (26-28 day) the lung bud divides into two primary bronchial buds (rudiments
of the lungs), which enlarge to form the right and left primary bronchi.



Second round of branching – at the end of the 5th week
• each primary bronchi divides into secondary (lobular) bronchi – (3 right and 2 left).



Third round of branching - 6th - 8th week
• the 2nd (lobar) bronchi undergo progressive branching to form the
segmental bronchi (10 in the right, 8/9 in the left lung)
– Each segmental bronchus with surrounding mass of mesenchyme (with
capillaries, and smooth muscle cells) becomes a bronchopulmonary
segment (segment in a lung)

Q:

bronchi and bronchioles

A:

Up to the 16th week – next 13-14
branching → respiratory tree
produces terminal bronchioles
(17 generation of branching)
Between the 16/17 – 24th week each
terminal bronchiole divides into two
or more respiratory bronchioles

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Q:

splanchnic mesenchyme - derivatives

A:

• The smooth muscle, connective tissue, and cartilaginous plates in the bronchi are derived from  splanchnic mesenchyme



Splanchnic mesenchyme → visceral pleura
Somatic mesoderm → parietal pleura

Q:

during developement of respiratory

A:

• Caudolateral growth of lung buds result in its expand into coelomic cavity <-- pericardioperitoneal canals (lie on each side of the foregut)

Q:

pleural cavities

A:

• pericardioperitoneal canals are separated from:
– peritoneal cavity
– pericardial cavity
by pleuroperitoneal and pleuropericardial folds that form
primitive pleural cavities  space between parietal and visceral pleura

Q:

pseudoglandular phase (8-16 weeks)

A:

• 16 - 17 generations of air-conducting bronchial (up to the terminal bronchioles) is formed

– by 16th week (next 14-15 more branchings), the respiratory tree produces small branches called terminal bronchioles



• The conducting portion of respiratory system is lined by cuboidal epithelial cells → precursor cells for the:

• ciliated epithelium (the first ciliated epithelial cells occur at 13th week
ofpregnancy)
• secretory cells


• By the 16th week all major elements of the lung are formed (except those involved with gas exchange)
• Respiration is not possible!
– Fetuses born during this period are unable to survive


Q:

canalicular phase (16-24/26 week)

A:

• Canalicular phase overlaps the pseudoglandular phase → cranial
segments of lungs mature faster than the caudal region

• The lumen of the bronchi and terminal
bronchioles become larger and the lung
tissue becomes higly vascular
• By 24 weeks each terminal bronchiole
has given rise to 2/more respiratory bronchioles, that divide into 3-6 tubular/canalicular alveolar ducts



• In the respiratory portion, appear the first typically lung-specific cells -
type II pneumocytes (part of these cuboidal cells mainly duringnext phase
differentiate into type I pneumocytes)


• At the end of 24th week the lumen of the canaliculi becomes wider and form a few terminal sacs (primordial, primary acini)
mainly in cranial regions  invasion of capillaries into the septa between the primary acinus (initiation of blood-air barrier formation → primary septa)



Q:

saccular phase (terminal sac phase )(26-birth)

A:

• last trimester: many more terminal sacs develop (the last subdivision
of the respiratory airpassages), their epithelium become very thin
• at birth, all generations of respiratory branches have been generated
(the sacculi correspond to the later mature alveoli)
• the numer of terminal sacculi increase
• terminal sacculi are lined with type I and type II pneumocytes

• between the sacculi - connective tissue primary septa (with many cells;
the proportion of collagen and elastic fibers is small → important for epithelium
differentiation and angiogenesis;


• Many more terminal saccules developed
• The initiate contact between type I pneumocyte and endothelial cells establishes
the blood-air barrier, permitting at a certain level gas exchange for survival
capillary network proliferates
• The
around the developing alveoli
• The type II pneumocytes continue surfactant production
(need to expansion of terminal sacs = primordial alveoli) (reduces surface tension
and facilitates expansion ofthe alveoli during breathing)

Q:

developement of respiratory system

A:

• The primordium of the lower
respiratory system
(laryngotracheal groove) develops in about 4 week (22nd day,
4 mm-length embryo)
• Arises from endoderm of the ventral wall of the caudal part of
foregut (caudally from 4th pair of laryngeal pouches)
• By the end of 4th week,
laryngotracheal groove enlarges and
evaginates to form
the respiratory diverticulum

– signals from the surrounding
mesenchyme (→FGFs) determine
the localization of the bud along the
gut tube and stimulate the ventrocaudal grow

Exam histology

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