GER Quantitative Reasoning an der National University Of Singapore | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

# Lernmaterialien für GER Quantitative Reasoning an der National University of Singapore

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What is ecological correlation

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Correlation based on aggregates

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Limitations with Correlation

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Correlation does not imply causation

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Why does ecological correlation overstate the strength of association in individuals

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Variability among individuals will be eliminated once we use group averages as a unit

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Atomistic Fallacy

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Applying correlation based on individuals towards the aggregates

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What is Attenuation effect

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Data for the variable is restricted to a limited range as a result of the range of data in the first variable

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Does the range restriction understate or overstate the strength of association betweem two variables?

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Understate

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What is the linear regression line?

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The best fit line. Can be found through excel.

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What is a parameter?

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A parameter is a numerical fact about a population, usually not known to us but is of interest to the investigators

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What is selection bias

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Systemic tendency to exclude one kind of person from the sample due to

- IMPERFECT SAMPLING FRAME

- NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING METHODS

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What is Non-Response Bias

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Systematic tendency from subjects who do not respond to the survey (example uni graduate employment survey)

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To minimize bias in a survey we need to

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1. Include every population unit in the frame

2. Use a probability sampling method

3. Get 100% response rate

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What is confidence intervals

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Range of values that we are reasonably certain that our unknown parameter lies in

It is reported in two parts

1. Confidence level (we are 95% sure)

2. Rage (that the population parameter is within 0.18 and 0.22)

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## Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen GER Quantitative Reasoning Kurs an der National University of Singapore - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What is ecological correlation

A:

Correlation based on aggregates

Q:

Limitations with Correlation

A:

Correlation does not imply causation

Q:

Why does ecological correlation overstate the strength of association in individuals

A:

Variability among individuals will be eliminated once we use group averages as a unit

Q:

Atomistic Fallacy

A:

Applying correlation based on individuals towards the aggregates

Q:

What is Attenuation effect

A:

Data for the variable is restricted to a limited range as a result of the range of data in the first variable

Q:

Does the range restriction understate or overstate the strength of association betweem two variables?

A:

Understate

Q:

What is the linear regression line?

A:

The best fit line. Can be found through excel.

Q:

What is a parameter?

A:

A parameter is a numerical fact about a population, usually not known to us but is of interest to the investigators

Q:

What is selection bias

A:

Systemic tendency to exclude one kind of person from the sample due to

- IMPERFECT SAMPLING FRAME

- NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING METHODS

Q:

What is Non-Response Bias

A:

Systematic tendency from subjects who do not respond to the survey (example uni graduate employment survey)

Q:

To minimize bias in a survey we need to

A:

1. Include every population unit in the frame

2. Use a probability sampling method

3. Get 100% response rate

Q:

What is confidence intervals

A:

Range of values that we are reasonably certain that our unknown parameter lies in

It is reported in two parts

1. Confidence level (we are 95% sure)

2. Rage (that the population parameter is within 0.18 and 0.22)

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