B11 - Exercise Physiology an der Medizinische Universität Wien | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für B11 - Exercise Physiology an der Medizinische Universität Wien

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How should you prescribe duration of resistance training?

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• Duration = Time that a load is applied on the organism with effective intensity. non-stop repeating of the same exercise to externally conspicuous complete muscle fatigue = Set

• The number of repetitions per set (= duration) is correct if the fatigue caused last repetition is between the 8th and 15th repetition.

• Intensity and duration are inversely proportional: the higher the intensity, the smaller the possible number of repetitions. If more than 15 reps are possible --> the training weight is to be increased.

• The systematic increase of load: not by increasing the number of repetitions/sets, but by the addition of further, similar sets!!
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is a prudent recommendation for weight loss in obese persons?

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A Prudent Recommendation --> overweight/obese person should reduce initial body weight by no more than 5 to 15%. Setting initial weight loss goal beyond the 5% to 15% recommendation gives unattainable target!

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the normal lung blood pressure during rest & at maximal exercise?

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• @rest: 2-7mmHg
• @ maximal exercise: 15-21mmHg (due to increased perfusion)
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Why is it important to identify an exercise goal before creating a training program?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Define the training goal before you create the training program!

Important, because the desired outcome defines the required type of training. You want to know how far to go in a systematic training process by defining the status quo and compare it with the desired status one can estimate how long it takes to get to there (or if it is possible at all).

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Test Person II: AB, male, 44a.

85kg, BMI 29.4. Abd. Girth 106cm, body fat 26%. Physical fitness: average, sedentary lifestyle, formerly football, since 2 years “just walking”; occasionally low back pain. Pers. Objectives: Reduction of weight, prophylaxis back pain, put on strength.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Training modality: endurance training + PRE!
• Intensity: 40% of 1 RM increasing to 50% of 1 RM
• Duration: 1 set of 8-15 repetitions
• Frequency: 2 S/MG/week
• Increase every 5 weeks 2 S/MG/week up to 8 S/MG/week
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 18 - 64 years (WHO)?

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• at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or do at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in bouts of at least 10 minutes duration.

• For additional health benefits, adults should increase their moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes per week or engage in 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.

• Muscle-strengthening activities should be done involving major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week.

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Definition of premature death?

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Death under the age of 70 years. 52% of all premature deaths globally are caused by non-communicable diseases (NCD’s). Most common NCD’s leading to premature death:
• Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (37%)

• Cancer (27%)

• Chronic lung disease (8%)
• Diabetes mellitus (4%)

1.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The benefits of physical activity are well documented, but the possibility for negative effects remains controversial.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Potentially negative effects occur because an elevated aerobic exercise metabolism increases reactive oxygen and nitrogen free-radical production. At relatively low cellular levels, free radicals may negatively influence metabolism through signaling mechanisms that maintain cellular balance. Increased free radicals may overwhelm the body’s natural defenses and pose a health risk from increased oxidative stress.

• An opposing position maintains that free-radical production increases during physical activity, yet the body’s normal antioxidant defenses remain adequate or concomitantly improve. Improvement occurs as the natural enzymatic defenses.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does diabetes mellitus play a role in NCDs?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Risk factor for coronary heart disease, increasing risk by ≈ 2,4 times in men &
≈ 5,1 times in women.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Definition of physical activity?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that results in a substantial increase in caloric requirements over resting energy expenditure (doing a hike, sweeping the floor, cutting wood, etc.). Physical activity (PA) can be done occasionally or on a regular basis:

• PA that’s done occasionally is termed “acute activity or acute exercise”
• PA done on a regular basis with a certain aim (for example a heart patient walks 30 min several times a week to improve his/her fitness) is also called “chronic or regular exercise” or “exercise training”.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does obesity play a role in NCDs?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Adipose tissue is metabolically active and can release mediators that control body weight homeostasis, insulin resistance and also promote inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, obesity is strongly associated with diabetes and other CVD risk factors. It is also is associated with excess mortality. Obese people who die do this mainly from CVD and several common cancers.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does age play a role in NCDs?

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AGE plays a causal role. The probability to acquire a chronic disease increases with age. BUT: age ≠ disease!!!

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen B11 - Exercise Physiology Kurs an der Medizinische Universität Wien - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

How should you prescribe duration of resistance training?

A:
• Duration = Time that a load is applied on the organism with effective intensity. non-stop repeating of the same exercise to externally conspicuous complete muscle fatigue = Set

• The number of repetitions per set (= duration) is correct if the fatigue caused last repetition is between the 8th and 15th repetition.

• Intensity and duration are inversely proportional: the higher the intensity, the smaller the possible number of repetitions. If more than 15 reps are possible --> the training weight is to be increased.

• The systematic increase of load: not by increasing the number of repetitions/sets, but by the addition of further, similar sets!!
Q:

What is a prudent recommendation for weight loss in obese persons?

A:

A Prudent Recommendation --> overweight/obese person should reduce initial body weight by no more than 5 to 15%. Setting initial weight loss goal beyond the 5% to 15% recommendation gives unattainable target!

Q:

What is the normal lung blood pressure during rest & at maximal exercise?

A:
• @rest: 2-7mmHg
• @ maximal exercise: 15-21mmHg (due to increased perfusion)
Q:

Why is it important to identify an exercise goal before creating a training program?

A:

Define the training goal before you create the training program!

Important, because the desired outcome defines the required type of training. You want to know how far to go in a systematic training process by defining the status quo and compare it with the desired status one can estimate how long it takes to get to there (or if it is possible at all).

Q:

Test Person II: AB, male, 44a.

85kg, BMI 29.4. Abd. Girth 106cm, body fat 26%. Physical fitness: average, sedentary lifestyle, formerly football, since 2 years “just walking”; occasionally low back pain. Pers. Objectives: Reduction of weight, prophylaxis back pain, put on strength.

A:
• Training modality: endurance training + PRE!
• Intensity: 40% of 1 RM increasing to 50% of 1 RM
• Duration: 1 set of 8-15 repetitions
• Frequency: 2 S/MG/week
• Increase every 5 weeks 2 S/MG/week up to 8 S/MG/week
Q:

Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 18 - 64 years (WHO)?

A:
• at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or do at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in bouts of at least 10 minutes duration.

• For additional health benefits, adults should increase their moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes per week or engage in 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.

• Muscle-strengthening activities should be done involving major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week.

Q:

Definition of premature death?

A:

Death under the age of 70 years. 52% of all premature deaths globally are caused by non-communicable diseases (NCD’s). Most common NCD’s leading to premature death:
• Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (37%)

• Cancer (27%)

• Chronic lung disease (8%)
• Diabetes mellitus (4%)

1.

Q:

The benefits of physical activity are well documented, but the possibility for negative effects remains controversial.

A:
• Potentially negative effects occur because an elevated aerobic exercise metabolism increases reactive oxygen and nitrogen free-radical production. At relatively low cellular levels, free radicals may negatively influence metabolism through signaling mechanisms that maintain cellular balance. Increased free radicals may overwhelm the body’s natural defenses and pose a health risk from increased oxidative stress.

• An opposing position maintains that free-radical production increases during physical activity, yet the body’s normal antioxidant defenses remain adequate or concomitantly improve. Improvement occurs as the natural enzymatic defenses.
Q:

How does diabetes mellitus play a role in NCDs?

A:

Risk factor for coronary heart disease, increasing risk by ≈ 2,4 times in men &
≈ 5,1 times in women.

Q:

Definition of physical activity?

A:

Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that results in a substantial increase in caloric requirements over resting energy expenditure (doing a hike, sweeping the floor, cutting wood, etc.). Physical activity (PA) can be done occasionally or on a regular basis:

• PA that’s done occasionally is termed “acute activity or acute exercise”
• PA done on a regular basis with a certain aim (for example a heart patient walks 30 min several times a week to improve his/her fitness) is also called “chronic or regular exercise” or “exercise training”.

Q:

How does obesity play a role in NCDs?

A:

Adipose tissue is metabolically active and can release mediators that control body weight homeostasis, insulin resistance and also promote inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, obesity is strongly associated with diabetes and other CVD risk factors. It is also is associated with excess mortality. Obese people who die do this mainly from CVD and several common cancers.

Q:

How does age play a role in NCDs?

A:

AGE plays a causal role. The probability to acquire a chronic disease increases with age. BUT: age ≠ disease!!!

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