B02 - Somatology an der Medizinische Universität Wien | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

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What are basic histological methods? 

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o Cell Cultures (in vivo, fixed samples)


o Smear preparation (blood smears, vaginal smears, fixed & (specifically) stained) 


o Histological Sections (fixed and stained)

                                       

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What are the main steps in tissue processing? 

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o Fixation: stabilization of the in vivo situation
o Dehydration: converting hydrophilic into lipophilic cells for infiltration
o Embedding: infiltration & hardening of tissue in embedding material (paraffin, 61°C) 

o Cutting: preparing thin section (~ 5-10 μm) with microtomes
o Staining: visualization of cell / tissue components by differential staining
o Covering: preparing permanent specimens --> Microscopy

                                       

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What are Glycosaminoglycans? 

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Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long linear (unbranched) polysaccharides consisting of repeating disaccharide units. One sugar: GlcNAc / GalNAc; Second Sugar: uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or Galactose; 


Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water; they are therefore useful to the body as a lubricant or as a shock absorber (Water binding --> high turgor & compression resistance; Negative Charge --> high Cation-binding!)

                   

GAG-Family: Chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparin, heparin sulfate, hyaluronan;

                                       

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What are the main functions of connective tissue? 

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o Frames of organs and of the body
o Place of immune defense
o Anchorage and attachment
o Medium for diffusion or nutrient and waste 

o Aids in injury repair

o Storage (lipids)

                                                           

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What are the basic characteristics of connective tissue? 

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Cells: can be resident or mobile (free, temporary on site --> immune system!) 


Extracellular matrix: can be amorphous (unstructured) or structured; 

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What is the extracellular matrix composed of? 

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Synthesized and secreted by the tissue specific resident cells (“blast-cells”, e.g. Fibroblasts, Osteoblasts, Chondroblasts) which indicates this active state;

                                       

Generally, the matrix is composed of structured elements (fibers and fibrils) and the unstructured ground substance:

                                       

  • Fibrils / Fibers: Collagen (different types, tissue specific) fibers & elastic fibers;

  • Ground Substance: an amorphous substance that can exist as a liquid, gel or flexible
    solid, conferring unique structural properties to each connective tissue.

                                       


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Definition of a tissue? 

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Tissues are the organization level between cells and organs. They are ensembles of cells of same origin and often similar morphology that together carry out a specific / common function. They may be composed of only one or different cell types. Despite of its complexity, the human body consists only of four basic types of tissues that form in different amounts and composition of cells and matrix and association with one another the different organs:

       

o Connective Tissue (Connective Tissue Proper, Bones, Cartilage, Adipose Tissue)

o Epithelial Tissue
o Muscle Tissue
o Nervous Tissue 

                                                           

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How is collagen build up? 

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It consists of amino acids bound together to form a triple helix of elongated fibrils (= collagen helix). It is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin. Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be rigid (bone), compliant (tendon), or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). 

                                       

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What are the main types of collagen? 

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  • Type I: fibrils aggregate into fibers and fiber bundles; (e.g. skin, tendon, bone, ligaments, dentin, interstitial tissues); Over 90% of the collagen in the human body is type I collagen.        
                                  
  • Type II: fibrils do not form fibers; present in hyaline & elastic cartilage;            
                         
  • Type III: fibrils aggregate into fibers; present surrounding muscle cells & nerve fibers; forms the stroma of lymphatic tissues and organs; (e.g. skin, muscle, blood vessels);

  • Type IV: Chemically unique form of collagen; primarily found in the basal lamina;
                                           
  • Elastic fibers: Composed of Elastin (central amorphous core) surrounded by microfibrils (fibrillin); occur in most connective tissue in varying amounts and are intermixed with collagen fibers.
                                                  
  • Reticular fibers:
    Collagen Type III fibers, stain with silver (argyrophilic); major fiber type in reticular connective tissue (e.g. in the stoma of lymphoid organs, fat tissue, component of basement membrane); 

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Name different types of connective tissue proper. 

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Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue (which is further subdivided into dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues). Loose and dense connective tissue are distinguished by the ratio of ground substance to fibrous tissue.

                                       

  • Loose Connective Tissue: has much more ground substance and a relative lack of fibrous tissue; e.g. mucosa and submucosa of organs;

                   

  • Dense Connective Tissue: has much more collagen fibers than cells; dens regular: tendons & ligaments; dense irregular: dermis of the skin;


  • Reticular Connective Tissue: organs of immune system;


  • Elastic Connective Tissue: wall of the aorta


  • Mucoid Connective Tissue: umbilical cord (Wharton’s’ jelly)

                                       

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Name the cells of cartilage & explain the composition of the matrix. 

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  • Cells: chondroblasts, chondrocytes & condroclasts; 


  • Matrix: ground substance (amorphous; hyaluronic acid aggrecan & water) + fibrils (collagen II, masked minor collagens IX & XI) 


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What are the most common fixative for light & electron microscopy? How do these fixatives work? 

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light-microscopy is 4% Formaldehyde


electron microscopy 2,5% Glutaraldehyde

                                   

                                               

These fixatives preserve tissues and cells mainly by irreversibly cross-linking proteins. Their main action is to cross-link amino groups in proteins through the formation of methylene bridges. 

                                       

    

                                       

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Q:

What are basic histological methods? 

A:

                                               

o Cell Cultures (in vivo, fixed samples)


o Smear preparation (blood smears, vaginal smears, fixed & (specifically) stained) 


o Histological Sections (fixed and stained)

                                       

Q:

What are the main steps in tissue processing? 

A:

                                               

o Fixation: stabilization of the in vivo situation
o Dehydration: converting hydrophilic into lipophilic cells for infiltration
o Embedding: infiltration & hardening of tissue in embedding material (paraffin, 61°C) 

o Cutting: preparing thin section (~ 5-10 μm) with microtomes
o Staining: visualization of cell / tissue components by differential staining
o Covering: preparing permanent specimens --> Microscopy

                                       

Q:

What are Glycosaminoglycans? 

A:

                                               

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long linear (unbranched) polysaccharides consisting of repeating disaccharide units. One sugar: GlcNAc / GalNAc; Second Sugar: uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or Galactose; 


Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water; they are therefore useful to the body as a lubricant or as a shock absorber (Water binding --> high turgor & compression resistance; Negative Charge --> high Cation-binding!)

                   

GAG-Family: Chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparin, heparin sulfate, hyaluronan;

                                       

Q:

What are the main functions of connective tissue? 

A:

    

o Frames of organs and of the body
o Place of immune defense
o Anchorage and attachment
o Medium for diffusion or nutrient and waste 

o Aids in injury repair

o Storage (lipids)

                                                           

Q:

What are the basic characteristics of connective tissue? 

A:

Cells: can be resident or mobile (free, temporary on site --> immune system!) 


Extracellular matrix: can be amorphous (unstructured) or structured; 

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Q:

What is the extracellular matrix composed of? 

A:

Synthesized and secreted by the tissue specific resident cells (“blast-cells”, e.g. Fibroblasts, Osteoblasts, Chondroblasts) which indicates this active state;

                                       

Generally, the matrix is composed of structured elements (fibers and fibrils) and the unstructured ground substance:

                                       

  • Fibrils / Fibers: Collagen (different types, tissue specific) fibers & elastic fibers;

  • Ground Substance: an amorphous substance that can exist as a liquid, gel or flexible
    solid, conferring unique structural properties to each connective tissue.

                                       


Q:

Definition of a tissue? 

A:

                                                                       

Tissues are the organization level between cells and organs. They are ensembles of cells of same origin and often similar morphology that together carry out a specific / common function. They may be composed of only one or different cell types. Despite of its complexity, the human body consists only of four basic types of tissues that form in different amounts and composition of cells and matrix and association with one another the different organs:

       

o Connective Tissue (Connective Tissue Proper, Bones, Cartilage, Adipose Tissue)

o Epithelial Tissue
o Muscle Tissue
o Nervous Tissue 

                                                           

Q:

How is collagen build up? 

A:

                                               

It consists of amino acids bound together to form a triple helix of elongated fibrils (= collagen helix). It is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin. Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be rigid (bone), compliant (tendon), or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). 

                                       

Q:

What are the main types of collagen? 

A:
  • Type I: fibrils aggregate into fibers and fiber bundles; (e.g. skin, tendon, bone, ligaments, dentin, interstitial tissues); Over 90% of the collagen in the human body is type I collagen.        
                                  
  • Type II: fibrils do not form fibers; present in hyaline & elastic cartilage;            
                         
  • Type III: fibrils aggregate into fibers; present surrounding muscle cells & nerve fibers; forms the stroma of lymphatic tissues and organs; (e.g. skin, muscle, blood vessels);

  • Type IV: Chemically unique form of collagen; primarily found in the basal lamina;
                                           
  • Elastic fibers: Composed of Elastin (central amorphous core) surrounded by microfibrils (fibrillin); occur in most connective tissue in varying amounts and are intermixed with collagen fibers.
                                                  
  • Reticular fibers:
    Collagen Type III fibers, stain with silver (argyrophilic); major fiber type in reticular connective tissue (e.g. in the stoma of lymphoid organs, fat tissue, component of basement membrane); 

Q:

Name different types of connective tissue proper. 

A:

Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue (which is further subdivided into dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues). Loose and dense connective tissue are distinguished by the ratio of ground substance to fibrous tissue.

                                       

  • Loose Connective Tissue: has much more ground substance and a relative lack of fibrous tissue; e.g. mucosa and submucosa of organs;

                   

  • Dense Connective Tissue: has much more collagen fibers than cells; dens regular: tendons & ligaments; dense irregular: dermis of the skin;


  • Reticular Connective Tissue: organs of immune system;


  • Elastic Connective Tissue: wall of the aorta


  • Mucoid Connective Tissue: umbilical cord (Wharton’s’ jelly)

                                       

Q:

Name the cells of cartilage & explain the composition of the matrix. 

A:
  • Cells: chondroblasts, chondrocytes & condroclasts; 


  • Matrix: ground substance (amorphous; hyaluronic acid aggrecan & water) + fibrils (collagen II, masked minor collagens IX & XI) 


Q:

What are the most common fixative for light & electron microscopy? How do these fixatives work? 

A:

light-microscopy is 4% Formaldehyde


electron microscopy 2,5% Glutaraldehyde

                                   

                                               

These fixatives preserve tissues and cells mainly by irreversibly cross-linking proteins. Their main action is to cross-link amino groups in proteins through the formation of methylene bridges. 

                                       

    

                                       

B02 - Somatology

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