BBS1002 - Homeostasis And Organ Systems an der Maastricht University | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für BBS1002 - Homeostasis and Organ Systems an der Maastricht University

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What is hematopoiesis and how does it work?

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Hematopoiesis = blood cell formation in the bone marrow


- hemocytoblasts (stemcells) develop into lymphoid (->lymphocytes) or myeloid (-> all other cells) stem cells


(all other cells: erythrocytes, megakaryoctes (->platelets) and other leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which hormones influence hematopoiesis?

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- erythropoietin stimulates erythrocyte production

- thrombopoietin stimulates platelet production

- colony-stimulating factors stimulate leukocyte production

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Explain the two different ways of passive transport.

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1. Diffusion: molecules move down their concentration gradient, without use of ATP (can be simple or facilitated)


2. Filtration: molecules are forced to move down their pressure gradient (happens across capillary walls)

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What is the difference between primary and secondary active transport?

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- primary active transport uses ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient through protein channels/carriers


- secondary active transport uses electrochemical gradient created by primary a.t. to move molecules down their gradient

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What is interstitial fluid and what is it composed of?

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- fluid surrounding the cells

- composed of water and solvents (similar compositions as blood plasma)

- very different composition to intracellular fluid -> drives exchange between interstitial fluid and cells

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What is microcirculation?

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- blood flow through capillary beds, where exchange between tissue cells and plasma takes place

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How do molecules move through capillary membranes?

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- lipid-soluble molecules can diffuse through the membrane 

- water-soluble molecules move through intercellular clefts (slits between endothelial cells)

- macromolecules have to be transported via transcytosis (vesicular transport)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain hydrostatic and osmotic pressure.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- hydrostatic pressure is the pressure in the capillaries; high at arterial end (filtration); low at venous ends (reabsorption)


- osmotic pressure causes osmosis into capillaries (caused by the concentration gradient of plasma proteins)

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Explain the route the blood takes through the heart chambers.

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- blood enters the heart through the venae cavae into the right atrium

- then it flows into right ventricle 

- from there it leaves through the pulmonary artery to the lungs

- from the lungs (now oxygenated) it flows through the pulmonary vein into the left atrium

- then into the left ventricle

- and from there it leaves through the aorta to the whole body 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are pulmonary and systemic circulation?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- pulmonary circulation = blood flow through pulmonary artery into the lungs and back through the pulmonary vein


- systemic circulation = blood flow from the aorta into all tissues of the body and back to the heart through superior/inferior vena cava

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Explain the terms stroke volume and cardiac output.

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- stroke volume = the volume of blood pumped by one ventricular contraction (EDV-ESV)

- cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the three major blood cells and what is their function?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Erythrocytes: oxygen transport

- Leukocytes: immune response 

- Platelets: bood clotting

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

What is hematopoiesis and how does it work?

A:

Hematopoiesis = blood cell formation in the bone marrow


- hemocytoblasts (stemcells) develop into lymphoid (->lymphocytes) or myeloid (-> all other cells) stem cells


(all other cells: erythrocytes, megakaryoctes (->platelets) and other leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes)

Q:

Which hormones influence hematopoiesis?

A:

- erythropoietin stimulates erythrocyte production

- thrombopoietin stimulates platelet production

- colony-stimulating factors stimulate leukocyte production

Q:

Explain the two different ways of passive transport.

A:

1. Diffusion: molecules move down their concentration gradient, without use of ATP (can be simple or facilitated)


2. Filtration: molecules are forced to move down their pressure gradient (happens across capillary walls)

Q:

What is the difference between primary and secondary active transport?

A:

- primary active transport uses ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient through protein channels/carriers


- secondary active transport uses electrochemical gradient created by primary a.t. to move molecules down their gradient

Q:

What is interstitial fluid and what is it composed of?

A:

- fluid surrounding the cells

- composed of water and solvents (similar compositions as blood plasma)

- very different composition to intracellular fluid -> drives exchange between interstitial fluid and cells

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is microcirculation?

A:

- blood flow through capillary beds, where exchange between tissue cells and plasma takes place

Q:

How do molecules move through capillary membranes?

A:

- lipid-soluble molecules can diffuse through the membrane 

- water-soluble molecules move through intercellular clefts (slits between endothelial cells)

- macromolecules have to be transported via transcytosis (vesicular transport)

Q:

Explain hydrostatic and osmotic pressure.

A:

- hydrostatic pressure is the pressure in the capillaries; high at arterial end (filtration); low at venous ends (reabsorption)


- osmotic pressure causes osmosis into capillaries (caused by the concentration gradient of plasma proteins)

Q:

Explain the route the blood takes through the heart chambers.

A:

- blood enters the heart through the venae cavae into the right atrium

- then it flows into right ventricle 

- from there it leaves through the pulmonary artery to the lungs

- from the lungs (now oxygenated) it flows through the pulmonary vein into the left atrium

- then into the left ventricle

- and from there it leaves through the aorta to the whole body 

Q:

What are pulmonary and systemic circulation?

A:

- pulmonary circulation = blood flow through pulmonary artery into the lungs and back through the pulmonary vein


- systemic circulation = blood flow from the aorta into all tissues of the body and back to the heart through superior/inferior vena cava

Q:

Explain the terms stroke volume and cardiac output.

A:

- stroke volume = the volume of blood pumped by one ventricular contraction (EDV-ESV)

- cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume 

Q:

What are the three major blood cells and what is their function?

A:

- Erythrocytes: oxygen transport

- Leukocytes: immune response 

- Platelets: bood clotting

BBS1002 - Homeostasis and Organ Systems

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