Topics in Linguistics an der LMU München

Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für Topics in Linguistics an der LMU München

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Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs Topics in Linguistics an der LMU München.

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What does it mean to know a language? 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Topics in Linguistics an der LMU München auf StudySmarter:

How do we acquire and refresh language knowledge? Name the 5 regularities necessary. 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Topics in Linguistics an der LMU München auf StudySmarter:

How is change in language driven by frequent repetition? 
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Why do languages need structure and what is it? 

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Language change initiated by innovation: What factors encourage an act of innovation? 

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Language change initiated by innovation: What factors promote the conventionalization and entrenchment of innovation? 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Topics in Linguistics an der LMU München auf StudySmarter:

What is a convention? 
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Topics in Linguistics an der LMU München auf StudySmarter:

What children have to master

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Speech perception before and shortly after birth

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Topics in Linguistics an der LMU München auf StudySmarter:

How do children find out what the words of their language are (segmentation of language into words) 

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Summary of how children learn words and their meanings
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How we apply language knowledge? 
Name the three types of associations necessary. 

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Topics in Linguistics an der LMU München auf StudySmarter:

Topics in Linguistics

What does it mean to know a language? 
It means we habe the knowledge required to
  • go from words/expressions to meanings 
  • go from intentions/ideas to ways of talking about them
  • align parts of sentences in a 'correct' way
  • get combinations of words right
  • select words/expressions qs is appropriate in the context
  • associate words and expressions with kinds/groups of speakers

Topics in Linguistics

How do we acquire and refresh language knowledge? Name the 5 regularities necessary. 
We stick to regularities in speech and writing:
  • Semasiological symbolic: words or expressions are linked with meanings
  • onomasiological symbolic: intentions and ideas are put into words
  • syntagmatic: words are arranged in sentences
  • pragmatic: words and expressions are used as appropriate in contexts 
  • social: words and expressions are used by memebers of social groups

Topics in Linguistics

How is change in language driven by frequent repetition? 
By proceduralization of pronunciation:

  • how are you, hiya, hi
  • God be with you, good bye, bye

By Chunking  (now an expression and not a sentence, over centuries, fixed chunk) 
  • it is needless to note that, it is needless to say that, needless to say

By invited inference
  • The thing is 

By loss of opposition (contrast) 
      The case of borrowing 
  • Old English niman = to take, cf. German nehmen ~> Old Norse takan ~> to take 
          mingling of norse and old english speakers : competition of niman and takan, problem : there was no difference at all between the two ~> niman was "sent away", got lost
OR 
niman took on a slightly different meaning ~> could have cooexisted

By analogy
         Regularization of irregular forms
  • knelt ~> knealed
  •  dreamt ~> dreamed
we are in the middle of this process. 
went, drank, kept os staying due to high frequency of usage, see the cycle
Doubt because of rare words ~> going for regular form

Topics in Linguistics

Why do languages need structure and what is it? 
To make a system that allows for a lot of specifics to work in combination and with regularity
Structure is about the mind and society:
  • Meaning (symbolic associations and regularities) 
  • Opposition (paradigmatic associations) 
  • Linearity (syntagmatic associations and regularities) 
  • Context (socio-pragmatic associations, social and pragmatic regularities) 

Topics in Linguistics

Language change initiated by innovation: What factors encourage an act of innovation? 
  • Lack of available resources, new thing to be named
  • Language contact, code-switching (other languages?) 
  • "Extravagance" (showing off, fun etc.) 

Topics in Linguistics

Language change initiated by innovation: What factors promote the conventionalization and entrenchment of innovation? 
  • Prestige of innovators and early adopters 
  • Dense social networks
  • Many weak ties across social networks
  • Appeal if innovation 
  • Identity

Topics in Linguistics

What is a convention? 
A mutual regularity of behaviour: People do things in a similar way and expect other members of the same community or group to do things in this way too. 

culture specific
group specific etc. 

E.g.: A way of greeting
 kisses, hugs, bro fist, nose pressing etc. 

Topics in Linguistics

What children have to master
  • segment and identify words, given that speech comes into a continuous stream

  • recognize relevant sound distinctions e. g. differences between /p/ and /b/

  • produce and articulate sounds

  • understand that words have meanings and denote classes of things 

  • put together sentences correctly 

  • understand sentences that dobnot mean what they seem to say, e.g. in the case of irony

Topics in Linguistics

Speech perception before and shortly after birth
  • listen to language being spoken outside, especially by the mother

  • immediately after birth, infants can tell the difference between their mothers language and other languages

Experiment about preference of infants:
  • preference for mothers speech right after birth
  • preference for mothers language right after birth
  • preference for particular stories often repeated when in the womb, right after birth

Topics in Linguistics

How do children find out what the words of their language are (segmentation of language into words) 
We don't know: research has not found out. 
Hypothesis:
  • Isolated words and, more often, phrases in child-directed speech (listen!, hello!) 

  • Prosodic cues, e. g. stress and intonation patterns etc. (e. g. when the stress preferences are, when words end and start) 

  • Phonotactic regulations: language-specific restrictions on sound sequences and co-occurences ( language regularities and rules on how words are structured -endings-) 

  • Allophonic variations(e. g. word-initial aspiration of hard plosives-ph-) : different depending on place in words ~> children extract these patterns? 

  • Extracting statistical patterns; studies have shown that children can do this (artificial language as test) 

Topics in Linguistics

Summary of how children learn words and their meanings
  • onset of word learning: about 12 months 

  • slow start, often becoming faster after reaching 50 words

  • first words are concrete and denote people, food, animals, everyday objects, body parts and activities 

  • early word meanings sometimes show over- and underextension

  • the exact communicative force of early one-word utterances is hard to determine (what does the child really mean by doggie, often overinterpreted by linguists) 

  • so are the grammatical properties of early words

Topics in Linguistics

How we apply language knowledge? 
Name the three types of associations necessary. 
Symbolic (= forms <~> and meanings) and paradigmatic (= competing forms/meanings) associations
  • words/expressions w/ several meanings 
  • intentions/ideas  words/expressions 

Syntagmatic associations (= sequentially arranged forms and meanings) 
  • components of sentences in linear order
  • between words in linear order 

Socio-pragmatic associations (=forms and intentions in context and in relation to speakers) 
  • contexts w/ words/expressions 
  • words/expressions w/ people
  

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