VL 10 - Speech Recognition & Reading an der Leuphana Universität | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für VL 10 - Speech recognition & Reading an der Leuphana Universität

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What is categorical perception?

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A sound intermediate between two phonemes is perceived as being one or other of the phonemes. 


If people are presented with stimuli that are part of their phonemes, they don't perceive changes as continuous but rather categorical.


A similar phenomenon is found in visions with color perception. 

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What is segmentation

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Dividing the almost continuous sounds of speech into separate phonemes and words (= categorical units).

Note: This can be used to structure and recognize speech. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

There is always a continuous sound signal underlying perception, however in order to understand languages (in terms of discrete sound or meaning) the speech stream needs to be segmented into different units


Which are possible problems, listeners can have when trying to identify speech signals

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- Coarticulation: The speech signal is variable because speakers' pronunciation of a phoneme depends on their pronunciation of preceding and following phonemes

- The speech signals can vary due to differences in the speaker's sex, dialect and speaking rate

- Very rapid phoneme production (10 per second) means that listeners must identify what is said very quickly 

- Speech errors produced by non-native speakers 

- Energetic masking (distracting sounds like other speakers make it hard to perceive speech signals)

- Speech production is a very complex process where all parts of are body are involved in 

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Which are the four main processes involved in speech perception and comprehension?

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Decoding stage:

= selection of speech from acoustic background and transformation into an abstract representation 

( the phonemic/categorical levels follow )

Segmentation stage:

= word recognition is taking place trough retrieval of lexical information, etc. 

Recognition stage:

= recruiting higher level information 

Integration into a discourse:

= the highest stage 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which of the following statements are true with regard to the processes involved in speech perception and comprehension?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The decoding stage recruits higher level information like syntactic analyses and thematic processing.

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What can be understood under the McGurk effect

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A mismatch between spoken and visual (lip-based) information leads listeners to perceive a sound or word involving a blending of the auditory and visual information. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which factors can influence speech perception

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

McGurk effect

Context effects 

- interactionist account = influence on early stages of speech perception 

- autonomous account = influence on late stages of speech perception after word recognition 

- Phonemic restoration effect 

- Ganong effect

Energetic masking 

Coarticulation 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain shortly a study that investigated the McGurk effect

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The McGurk effect describes a mismatch between spoken and visual information that leads to perceive a sound or word that is a blending of the auditory and visual input. 

An example could be hearing "ta" and reading "ga" which is then perceived as "da"

Experimental procedure:

- A mismatch between auditory and visual input was achieved: 

a) a videotape of someone saying "ba" 

b) a voice saying "ga" repeatedly 

- P's reported hearing "da" 

- Note: the effect is strongest when the visual input came 100 ms ahead of the auditory input 

Lip-reading seems to influence speech perception as listeners could predict the next sound! 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are context effects

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Top-down or bottom-up processes that influence speech perception. (How & When) 

- Interactionist account: Context influences early stages of speech perception (strong top-down effects)

- Autonomous account: Context influences late stages of speech perception AFTER word recognition (bottom-up

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name two examples of context effects

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Phonemic restoration effect

= The finding that listeners are unaware that a phoneme has been deleted and replaced by a non-speech sound (e.g. cough) within a sentence.

- This effect is in line with the interactionist account and top-down processes as early perception is influenced

Ganong effect 

= The finding that perception of an ambiguous phoneme is biased towards a sound that produces a word rather than a non-word

- The effect occurs very rapidly and is in line with the interactionist account

- Early perception is influenced - top-down 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the phonemic restoration effect? Give an example

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Phonemic restoration effect

= The finding that listeners are unaware that a phoneme has been deleted and replaced by a non-speech sound (e.g. cough) within a sentence. 

Example:

It was found that the *eel was on the axle.

It was found that the *eel was on the shoe.

It was found that the *eel was on the table.

It was found that the *eel was on the orange.

*eel was perceived as wheel, heel, meal and peel, regarding of which context the word was presented in.  

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is a phoneme

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The smallest sound unit in a language.

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Q:

What is categorical perception?

A:

A sound intermediate between two phonemes is perceived as being one or other of the phonemes. 


If people are presented with stimuli that are part of their phonemes, they don't perceive changes as continuous but rather categorical.


A similar phenomenon is found in visions with color perception. 

Q:

What is segmentation

A:

Dividing the almost continuous sounds of speech into separate phonemes and words (= categorical units).

Note: This can be used to structure and recognize speech. 

Q:

There is always a continuous sound signal underlying perception, however in order to understand languages (in terms of discrete sound or meaning) the speech stream needs to be segmented into different units


Which are possible problems, listeners can have when trying to identify speech signals

A:

- Coarticulation: The speech signal is variable because speakers' pronunciation of a phoneme depends on their pronunciation of preceding and following phonemes

- The speech signals can vary due to differences in the speaker's sex, dialect and speaking rate

- Very rapid phoneme production (10 per second) means that listeners must identify what is said very quickly 

- Speech errors produced by non-native speakers 

- Energetic masking (distracting sounds like other speakers make it hard to perceive speech signals)

- Speech production is a very complex process where all parts of are body are involved in 

Q:

Which are the four main processes involved in speech perception and comprehension?

A:

Decoding stage:

= selection of speech from acoustic background and transformation into an abstract representation 

( the phonemic/categorical levels follow )

Segmentation stage:

= word recognition is taking place trough retrieval of lexical information, etc. 

Recognition stage:

= recruiting higher level information 

Integration into a discourse:

= the highest stage 

Q:

Which of the following statements are true with regard to the processes involved in speech perception and comprehension?

A:

The decoding stage recruits higher level information like syntactic analyses and thematic processing.

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Q:

What can be understood under the McGurk effect

A:

A mismatch between spoken and visual (lip-based) information leads listeners to perceive a sound or word involving a blending of the auditory and visual information. 

Q:

Which factors can influence speech perception

A:

McGurk effect

Context effects 

- interactionist account = influence on early stages of speech perception 

- autonomous account = influence on late stages of speech perception after word recognition 

- Phonemic restoration effect 

- Ganong effect

Energetic masking 

Coarticulation 

Q:

Explain shortly a study that investigated the McGurk effect

A:

The McGurk effect describes a mismatch between spoken and visual information that leads to perceive a sound or word that is a blending of the auditory and visual input. 

An example could be hearing "ta" and reading "ga" which is then perceived as "da"

Experimental procedure:

- A mismatch between auditory and visual input was achieved: 

a) a videotape of someone saying "ba" 

b) a voice saying "ga" repeatedly 

- P's reported hearing "da" 

- Note: the effect is strongest when the visual input came 100 ms ahead of the auditory input 

Lip-reading seems to influence speech perception as listeners could predict the next sound! 

Q:

What are context effects

A:

Top-down or bottom-up processes that influence speech perception. (How & When) 

- Interactionist account: Context influences early stages of speech perception (strong top-down effects)

- Autonomous account: Context influences late stages of speech perception AFTER word recognition (bottom-up

Q:

Name two examples of context effects

A:

Phonemic restoration effect

= The finding that listeners are unaware that a phoneme has been deleted and replaced by a non-speech sound (e.g. cough) within a sentence.

- This effect is in line with the interactionist account and top-down processes as early perception is influenced

Ganong effect 

= The finding that perception of an ambiguous phoneme is biased towards a sound that produces a word rather than a non-word

- The effect occurs very rapidly and is in line with the interactionist account

- Early perception is influenced - top-down 

Q:

What is the phonemic restoration effect? Give an example

A:

Phonemic restoration effect

= The finding that listeners are unaware that a phoneme has been deleted and replaced by a non-speech sound (e.g. cough) within a sentence. 

Example:

It was found that the *eel was on the axle.

It was found that the *eel was on the shoe.

It was found that the *eel was on the table.

It was found that the *eel was on the orange.

*eel was perceived as wheel, heel, meal and peel, regarding of which context the word was presented in.  

Q:

What is a phoneme

A:

The smallest sound unit in a language.

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