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Lernmaterialien für I/O Psychology an der Leuphana Universität

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen I/O Psychology Kurs an der Leuphana Universität zu.

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According to self-determination theory, what is the relevance of intrinsic motivation and (external) incentives?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. intrinsic and extrinsic motivation both play a role, intrinsic more for quality of the behaviour 
  2. with respect to performance, external incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonist. They are best considered simultaneously. Intrinsic motivation is not necessarily the holy grail.
  3. Intrinsic motivation is less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and is more important when incentives are indirectly tied to performance.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

According to reinforcement theory  (Behaviourism) (Skinner), behaviour is a function of...?

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behaviour is a function of stimulus, response, reward


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Shortly describe the warehouse experiment by Lufthans (1981). What were the results?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Experiment group were told desired behaviour (assisting, filling shelves, presence at work station) and were rewarded by time off or equivalent pay


Results

  • the retailing behaviour went up
  • the absence or idle time (unproduktive Zeit) went down

(compared to the control group that wasn't rewarded)

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What kinds of goals should we set to increase motivation and achieve higher performance?

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specific and challenging goals

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What is the definition of self-efficacy? What does it influence?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

o   People’s beliefs about their capabilities to perform a task or achieve a goal (“I’m confident that I can […]”)

o   Influences the choices people make, their aspirations, how much effort they mobilize, and how long they persevere

o   Self-efficacy is domain-specific (e.g., high self-efficacy in football but low in basketball)

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How big is the effect of self-efficacy on performance?

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r = .38 according to Stajkovic & Luthans, JAP, 1998

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What are the measurable outcomes (dependant variables) of motivation? 


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  1. direction of behavior (what a person does)
  2. intensity of action (cognitive effort and/or physical force of action) (how hard a person works)
  3. persistence of direction- specific behavior over time (how long a person works on their goals)



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What is "Evidence-based management"? What is the Scientist-Practioner model?

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  • translating principles derived from research into organizational practices = EBM
  • through EBM, managers become experts who make organizational decisions informed by social science and organizational research
  • Scientist-practitioner model:
    • using scientific tools and research in the practice of organizational psychology (Landy & Conte 2013)
      → close connection research and application
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1) How many days a week should employees telecommute? 

What are positive and negative implications of telecommuting?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1)

  • peek at 2 days per week (Golden, 2006)
  • after 2.5 days home office, telecommuting harmed relationship with co-workers (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007)

2) 

  • upsides of telecommuting: effects on perceived autonomy, work-family conflict, job satisfaction, performance, turnover intent, stress
  • downsides (when higher intensity of telecommuting): quality of relationship with co- workers declines (but not with supervisor)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Give empirical evidence (statistics) that work is important for humans

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • the minority of people across several countries would stop working (MOW study 1987).
  •  only 6% Germans would stop working if monetary rational for working disappeared (Kuchinke et al, 2009)
  • strong effects of job loss/ unemployment on wellbeing(negative effect, d = -0.38)
    • scope depends on age, dependence on money etc. → boundary conditions
  • improvement after reemployment (d = 0.89)
  • in general, work is very important for humans
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are implications of emotional variability for well-being and job satisfaction?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • the higher emotional variability, the
    stronger effects on negative outcomes (e.g. psychological disorders like anxiety, despression)
  • stronger effects for negative emotions
  • negative effect of emotional variability  on job satisfaction in emotional labor
  • variability in supervisor temper causes stress in subordinates
  • positive effect of self-efficacy variability on calibrated self-efficacy


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are general assumptions of reciprocal determinism? And what are its implications?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • not only dispositional (personality influences behaviour), but behaviour
    influences personality, it changes over time based on the behaviour you are
    showing --> personality not only predictor, but also outcome of behaviour
  • change in personality = slow process, very small changes from day to day
    shown in table
  • example: friend working for insurance, mostly unhappy people (because
    either cheating for money, or people are complaining). If you experience
    these people = external events → change your personality → compared to state 10 years before: less agreeable (open) to other people, can change long
    term tendency (macro level)
  • --> we can still develop and alter our personality incrementally, e.g. though setting goals and implementation intentions


Lösung ausblenden
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  • 568 Studierende
  • 18 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen I/O Psychology Kurs an der Leuphana Universität - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

According to self-determination theory, what is the relevance of intrinsic motivation and (external) incentives?

A:
  1. intrinsic and extrinsic motivation both play a role, intrinsic more for quality of the behaviour 
  2. with respect to performance, external incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonist. They are best considered simultaneously. Intrinsic motivation is not necessarily the holy grail.
  3. Intrinsic motivation is less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and is more important when incentives are indirectly tied to performance.
Q:

According to reinforcement theory  (Behaviourism) (Skinner), behaviour is a function of...?

A:

behaviour is a function of stimulus, response, reward


Q:

Shortly describe the warehouse experiment by Lufthans (1981). What were the results?

A:

Experiment group were told desired behaviour (assisting, filling shelves, presence at work station) and were rewarded by time off or equivalent pay


Results

  • the retailing behaviour went up
  • the absence or idle time (unproduktive Zeit) went down

(compared to the control group that wasn't rewarded)

Q:

What kinds of goals should we set to increase motivation and achieve higher performance?

A:

specific and challenging goals

Q:

What is the definition of self-efficacy? What does it influence?

A:

o   People’s beliefs about their capabilities to perform a task or achieve a goal (“I’m confident that I can […]”)

o   Influences the choices people make, their aspirations, how much effort they mobilize, and how long they persevere

o   Self-efficacy is domain-specific (e.g., high self-efficacy in football but low in basketball)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

How big is the effect of self-efficacy on performance?

A:

r = .38 according to Stajkovic & Luthans, JAP, 1998

Q:

What are the measurable outcomes (dependant variables) of motivation? 


A:


  1. direction of behavior (what a person does)
  2. intensity of action (cognitive effort and/or physical force of action) (how hard a person works)
  3. persistence of direction- specific behavior over time (how long a person works on their goals)



Q:

What is "Evidence-based management"? What is the Scientist-Practioner model?

A:
  • translating principles derived from research into organizational practices = EBM
  • through EBM, managers become experts who make organizational decisions informed by social science and organizational research
  • Scientist-practitioner model:
    • using scientific tools and research in the practice of organizational psychology (Landy & Conte 2013)
      → close connection research and application
Q:

1) How many days a week should employees telecommute? 

What are positive and negative implications of telecommuting?

A:

1)

  • peek at 2 days per week (Golden, 2006)
  • after 2.5 days home office, telecommuting harmed relationship with co-workers (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007)

2) 

  • upsides of telecommuting: effects on perceived autonomy, work-family conflict, job satisfaction, performance, turnover intent, stress
  • downsides (when higher intensity of telecommuting): quality of relationship with co- workers declines (but not with supervisor)
Q:

Give empirical evidence (statistics) that work is important for humans

A:
  • the minority of people across several countries would stop working (MOW study 1987).
  •  only 6% Germans would stop working if monetary rational for working disappeared (Kuchinke et al, 2009)
  • strong effects of job loss/ unemployment on wellbeing(negative effect, d = -0.38)
    • scope depends on age, dependence on money etc. → boundary conditions
  • improvement after reemployment (d = 0.89)
  • in general, work is very important for humans
Q:

What are implications of emotional variability for well-being and job satisfaction?

A:
  • the higher emotional variability, the
    stronger effects on negative outcomes (e.g. psychological disorders like anxiety, despression)
  • stronger effects for negative emotions
  • negative effect of emotional variability  on job satisfaction in emotional labor
  • variability in supervisor temper causes stress in subordinates
  • positive effect of self-efficacy variability on calibrated self-efficacy


Q:

What are general assumptions of reciprocal determinism? And what are its implications?

A:
  • not only dispositional (personality influences behaviour), but behaviour
    influences personality, it changes over time based on the behaviour you are
    showing --> personality not only predictor, but also outcome of behaviour
  • change in personality = slow process, very small changes from day to day
    shown in table
  • example: friend working for insurance, mostly unhappy people (because
    either cheating for money, or people are complaining). If you experience
    these people = external events → change your personality → compared to state 10 years before: less agreeable (open) to other people, can change long
    term tendency (macro level)
  • --> we can still develop and alter our personality incrementally, e.g. though setting goals and implementation intentions


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