Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität

Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität

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Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Motivation / Drivers for Digital Transformatin

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Definitions: Digitization, Digitalization & Digital Transformation

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Building Blocks of Digital Transformation

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Four archetypes of Bimodal IT (Haffke et. al)

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

The Chief Digital Officer

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Types/Roles of CDO

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Competencies of CDOs

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Citizensourcing

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Platforms: Player and Background

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Network effects

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

KUNUNU

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Machine learning and personality assessment (MLPA)

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Digitalization an der Leuphana Universität auf StudySmarter:

Digitalization

Motivation / Drivers for Digital Transformatin

1. Technological:
• 1.1 IT-based innovations (services + products) → digital disruption become more important + "kill” a lot of companies (e.g. Kodak, Blockbuster, encyclopaedia)
→ emerging technologies often go through the Gartner Hype Cycle (from Innovation Trigger to the Peak of Inflated Expectation to the through of Disillusionment to the slope of enlightenment to the plateau of productivity → some become obstacle before the plateau)
• 1.2 IT Megatrends (BigData, Cloud, Mobile, Social)
• 1.3 Progress in basic information technology
→ digital technologies as key drivers:  differ from earlier technologies through re-programmability, homogenization of data, self-referential nature
→ most valuable brands are those in IT/Tech (Apple/Google,…)


2. Economical + social:
• 2.1 Globalization
• 2.2 Individualization
• 2.3 New work (remote working, new organizational structures)


3. Changing expectations of customers/citizen
• increasing use of the internet + online purchases 
• nearly all services are online --> we therefore are disapointed whenever there are no online options


Digitalization

Definitions: Digitization, Digitalization & Digital Transformation

Digitization: technical process of converting analog into digital (e.g. digital photography, scanning invoices directly into a digital archive)
Digitalization: the manifold sociotechnical phenomena and processes of adopting and using these technologies in broader individual, organizational, and societal contexts
Digital transformation: a process that aims to improve an entity by triggering significant changes to its properties through combinations of information, computing, communication and connectivity technologies
➔ terms are often used interchangeable in the business world (especially 2 + 3)

Digitalization

Building Blocks of Digital Transformation

1. Use of digital technologies (social, mobile, analytics, Internet of things, plattforms & ecosystem) + Disruptions (consumer behaviour and expectations, competetive landscape, availability of data) as drivers

2. These trigger Strategic Responses

  • Digital Business Strategy (focusing on leveraging digital resources to create vaue)
  • Digital Transformation Strategy (focusing on processes/products that already have digital technology)

3. Enable Changes in value creation path (value proposition, value networks, digital channels, agility and ambidexterity)

4. Changes are affected by context including Structural changes (organizational structure, culture, leadership, employee roles and skills) and Organizational barriers (inertia, resistance)

5. Impacts (can be intended or not intended)

  • negativ: security and privacy
  • positiv: operational efficiency, organizational performance, industry & society improvements


Digitalization

Four archetypes of Bimodal IT (Haffke et. al)

A. Project-by-Project Bimdal IT

  •  At the start of the new project, the IT function must choose whether to
    use Traditional or Agile mode
  • allows project teams to support digitization projects
  • Can be a good choice for companies that are reluctant to engage in major changes

B. Subdivisional Bimodal IT

  • Structurally subdivide the IT function into two distinct groups 
  • Often: Separation of
    1. Delivery of traditional IT services, operations and support
    2. IT innovation and experimentation
  • Business units benefit from the internal subdivision, but separation can also cause a deep cultural division and tensions between different teams

C. Divisionally Separated Bimodal IT

  • Less common but higher level of bimodality
  • Establish an Agile mode division completely outside the traditional IT function
  • Agile mode division is led by a CDO (digital division)
  • Causes the highest level of internal disruption
  • Appropriate for firms that have fallen behind their digital competitors 

D. Reintegrate Bimodal IT

  • Demand for transferring knowledge and learnings from those working in
    the Agile mode to the rest of the IT function (trad. IT within agile mode)
    → companies may decide to reintegrate Project-by-Project, Subdivisional or Divisionally Separated Bimodal IT units
  • Allows a company to fully focus on its digital business transformation mission
  •  Moving traditional backend systems operations to outsourcing partners or a smaller subdivision operating in the background

Digitalization

The Chief Digital Officer

  • new management role to drive digital transformation
  • beforehand the CIO (Chief information officer) was responsible for digital innovation (but they were mainly not made for it → had to focus more on business strategy and less on the pure technology)
  • companies establishing new role at top management (CDO) → employed to make digital transformation a strategic priority
  • CDO supports top management by formulating + executing a digital transformation strategy + digital mobilize the whole company + encourage company-wide collaboration + initiate digital initiatives
  •  Goal: bring the company to the forefront of the digital evolution
  • difference to CIO: CDOs have no functional IT responsibility + often no profit/loss responsibility + their corporate perspective is broader + focus on fostering cross-functional collaboration + transformation at the core of its role not an additional responsibility

Digitalization

Types/Roles of CDO

1. The Entrepreneur Role: have entrepreneurial spirit + strong customer focus, explore IT-enabled innovations + establish digital technologies, initiate + design the shift to DT even adapt whole business models (often they have a lot of freedom from the management) 


2. The Digital Evangelist Role: convince the workforce at all departments + hierarchy levels (often they don’t have a lot of influence on the top management), successfully inspire people


3. The Coordinator Role: initiate the shift from decoupled silos to a cross-functional cooperation (emphasized that DT is not an isolated process), responsible for interlinking the whole company, manage + coordinates all digital activities

Digitalization

Competencies of CDOs

1. IT Competency: all types need this competency, need to have an understanding of IT applications + infrastructures, especially because they work closely together with the CIO (need to communicate + define the IT requirements)
2. Change Management Skills: (Coordinator) need to understand what new digital technologies mean for the business - therefore also needs to understand business models, of the business functions, … -  job is cross-functional + interdisciplinary)
3. Inspiration Skills: (Digital Evangelist) needs to be able to convince all employees + management about DT + demonstrates the benefits --> work as motivators, need to overcome barriers + resistance that often are incorporated by culture, therefore needs to understand this culture

4. Digital Pioneering Skills: (Digital Evangelist + Entrepreneur) need to have a high level of visionary thinking to create a digital vision,  need to look behind existing strategies (different perspectives)

5. Resilience: depending on the workforce + management, need to acknowledge failure

Digitalization

Citizensourcing

= applying the concept of open innovation to the public sector → public innovation in collaboration between the government and the public
• engaging citizens beyond elections which leads to an open government


• three mechanisms which are included in citizensourcing and intervene with each other:
1. Citizen ideation and innovation: engaging citizens in public innovation processes by competitions to solve a problem → enhances quality for common good

2. Collaborative administration: public service innovation + value creation + collaboration in administrative tasks → enhances speed & quality
3. Collaborative democracy: mass participation in policy-making process + in political agenda-planning/execution → enhances democratic constitution/transparency/confidence + reduces failure potential of policies


➔ These mechanisms build an open government (simple access to info + new technologies + emphasis on public participation) through citizensourcing


Examples: wirvsvirus, participedia

Digitalization

Platforms: Player and Background

Player

  • The owner of the platform (control their intellectual property, e.g. Google)
  • The providers (serves as platform’s interface with users, e.g. the play store)
  • The producer (creates the offering)
  • The consumer


Background

  • there has been a shift from pipelines to platforms
  • Pipeline businesses create value by controlling a linear series of activities with centrally employed staff and owned assets (the classic value-chain model)
  • Platform: creates value by orchestrating interactions between external producers and consumers


  •  three key shifts:
    1. From resource control to resource orchestration (the community as a key resource)
    2. From internal optimization to external interactions
    3. From focus on customer value to a focus on ecosystem value (in a circular, iterative, feedback-driven process)

Digitalization

Network effects

• firms that achieve higher volume than competitors (attract more platform participants) offer a higher average value per transaction
• the larger the network, the better the matches between supply and demand, the richer the data that can be used to find matches
direct network effects: the more people connected to a network, the more valuable that network is to each person who is part of it

 indirect network effects: the value to one group of customers depends on how many members of a different group participate (not necessary when all user are the same) 
• also advantage of first mover effect + winner-take-all (not for exchange or multisided platforms as more than one group)

Digitalization

KUNUNU

  • decisions employer review platform
  • Mission: help job seekers to make good workplace
  • Method: using workplace insides allows users to review workplace → share as an employee or as an applicant
  • now also data for salary transparency (leading), work culture (culture analysis, e.g. more classical or more modern)
  • Business Model:
    1.B2C: sharing reviews and people looking it up and using it
    2. B2B: businesses can also share information, basic profile (comment on reviews, be in dialogue, share context), employer branding profile (add visuals, news update feed, present employer brand)
  • Control Mechanisms:
    1. only one review per employee per email, checks in place if there are multiple reviews posted from on IP-address
    2. community guidelines (content that is allowed and not), checking for suspicious words --> is flagged and manually reviewed
    3. if something goes online users and employers have the opportunity to flag it (they then talk to the reviewer and ask for prove)

Digitalization

Machine learning and personality assessment (MLPA)

• MLPA = getting an understanding of a personality with algorithms

• human personality <----> digital footprint
• can be used to e.g. identify political preferences or sexual orientation
• example on how it is used: each user has likes → these likes will be put together into 100 components (which include different likes + an average score for each user) → then a prediction model is used (to identify e.g. age, gender, religious view and in the long run Big5)

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