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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.2: What evidence supports the existence of a person bias in attributions? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

People often give too much weight to personality and not enough to the environmental situation when they make attributions about others’ actions. Studies indicate that when making attributions to a person, people often ignore the particular situation they are in or the basis of their behavior and manner of expression and instead attribute the behavior mostly to the individual.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.3: Why is the person bias often called the “fundamental attribution error”? In what conditions does the bias most often occur? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

There was much evidence supporting the person bias that it was called fundamental attribution error to signify the pervasiveness and strength of the bias, and to suggest that it underlies various social-psychological phenomena. It most often happens when people are occupied, busy with other tasks or tired and when they are explicitly instructed to judge people based on behavior, they tend to exhibit the bias more.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.4: What logic and evidence suggest that the person bias may be a product of western culture and may not exist in Eastern culture? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

For years the studies of attributions had been conducted only in Western cultures, which led to some suggesting that the person bias in attributions might be a product of a predominantly Western way of thinking. Subsequent research has indicated that people within Eastern cultures are more inclined to consider the particular situation a person is in before judging, whereas US citizens tend to attribute behavior to the personality. Explanation: Western cultures approve of mostly personal independence whereas Eastern cultures promote interdependence among people.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.5: How have researchers documented biasing effects of physical attractiveness on perceptions of personality? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Studies shown that people tend to believe that more attractive people have higher social skills and are more intelligent than the less good looking people, and more often that ugly people are more likely to be blamed and punished harshly compare to good-looking people

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.6: How have researchers documented biasing effects of a babyish versus a mature-looking face? What practical consequences have been shown to result from this bias? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Baby-faced adults were more perceived as naïve, honest, helpless, kind and warm than mature-faced adults of the same age and sex – even thought the subjects could tell that baby-faced adults were not really younger. The baby-face bias influenced the outcomes of actual cases in claims-court, as the judging people were having a hard time imagining them in these situations, but their baby-faceness did not affect the rate of their convictions of negligence and/or incompetence. Studies have shown that people are inclined to perceive mature-faced people as more competent and responsible, and these results have actually correctly predicted election results.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.7: What evidence suggests that strangers who meet on the Internet like each other more than do strangers who meet in person? How might this phenomenon be explained? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Studies indicate that people who meet on internet first, tend to have positive images of each other and their positive impressions often increase when they meet. People who meet face-to-face from the beginning do not experience a change in impressions they have of each other in the following meetings. The anonymity and the lack of visual and auditory input the internet provides, helps decreasing social anxiety and people can reveal their true selves more comfortably through internet

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.8: According to Cooley, what is the “looking glass” with which we evaluate ourselves? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

It is a metaphor for other people who react to us. We all naturally infer what others think of us from their reactions and we use those inferences to build our own self-concepts.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.9: What are Pygmalion effects in psychology, and how were such effects demonstrated in elementary school classrooms? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Pygmalion effects are the beliefs and expectations other have of a person that to some degree can create reality by influencing that person’s self-concept and behavior. Demonstrated by school children were some were suggested to be special educational gifted and this expectation of the teacher has actually shown itself in increased intelligence and academic success in these particular children.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.10: What is the sociometer theory of self-esteem, and what evidence supports it? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The theory proposes that self-esteem acts like a meter to inform us of the degree to which we are likely to be accepted or rejected by others.


 Evidence: 

- Individual differences in self-esteem correlate strongly with individual differences in the degree to which people believe that they are generally accepted or rejected by others.

 - People’s self esteem increased after praise, social acceptance or other satisfying social experiences and decreased after evidence of social rejection. 

- Feedback about success or failure on a test had greater effects on self-esteem if the person was led to believe that others would hear of it than if the person was led to believe no one would know. If self-esteem depended just on our own judgements, the fact that others knew wouldn’t matter how well we did.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.11: What is some evidence that people construct a self-concept by comparing themselves with a reference group? How can a change in reference group can alter self-esteem? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

In a group of people every individual describes themselves with a trait that distinguishes them from the rest of the group. In accordance with the changes observed or the change in the whole status quo can change a person’s self-image depending on the aspect of the group the person compares themselves with

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.12: What are two means by which people build and maintain inflated views of themselves? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. The self-serving attributional bias, which is our tendency to attribute our successes to ourselves and our failures to other persons and external circumstances. 2. Selective long-term memory, which is the phenomenon in which we remember mostly positive things about ourselves and seemingly erase the negative ones.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.1: In what sense are people natural psychologists?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

We can naturally understand the psychological world, ourselves and those around us; even with no professional education we are able to make accurate predictions and extrapolations about other people’s behavior.

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

FQ.2: What evidence supports the existence of a person bias in attributions? 


A:

People often give too much weight to personality and not enough to the environmental situation when they make attributions about others’ actions. Studies indicate that when making attributions to a person, people often ignore the particular situation they are in or the basis of their behavior and manner of expression and instead attribute the behavior mostly to the individual.

Q:

FQ.3: Why is the person bias often called the “fundamental attribution error”? In what conditions does the bias most often occur? 


A:

There was much evidence supporting the person bias that it was called fundamental attribution error to signify the pervasiveness and strength of the bias, and to suggest that it underlies various social-psychological phenomena. It most often happens when people are occupied, busy with other tasks or tired and when they are explicitly instructed to judge people based on behavior, they tend to exhibit the bias more.

Q:

FQ.4: What logic and evidence suggest that the person bias may be a product of western culture and may not exist in Eastern culture? 


A:

For years the studies of attributions had been conducted only in Western cultures, which led to some suggesting that the person bias in attributions might be a product of a predominantly Western way of thinking. Subsequent research has indicated that people within Eastern cultures are more inclined to consider the particular situation a person is in before judging, whereas US citizens tend to attribute behavior to the personality. Explanation: Western cultures approve of mostly personal independence whereas Eastern cultures promote interdependence among people.

Q:

FQ.5: How have researchers documented biasing effects of physical attractiveness on perceptions of personality? 


A:

Studies shown that people tend to believe that more attractive people have higher social skills and are more intelligent than the less good looking people, and more often that ugly people are more likely to be blamed and punished harshly compare to good-looking people

Q:

FQ.6: How have researchers documented biasing effects of a babyish versus a mature-looking face? What practical consequences have been shown to result from this bias? 


A:

Baby-faced adults were more perceived as naïve, honest, helpless, kind and warm than mature-faced adults of the same age and sex – even thought the subjects could tell that baby-faced adults were not really younger. The baby-face bias influenced the outcomes of actual cases in claims-court, as the judging people were having a hard time imagining them in these situations, but their baby-faceness did not affect the rate of their convictions of negligence and/or incompetence. Studies have shown that people are inclined to perceive mature-faced people as more competent and responsible, and these results have actually correctly predicted election results.

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Q:

FQ.7: What evidence suggests that strangers who meet on the Internet like each other more than do strangers who meet in person? How might this phenomenon be explained? 


A:

Studies indicate that people who meet on internet first, tend to have positive images of each other and their positive impressions often increase when they meet. People who meet face-to-face from the beginning do not experience a change in impressions they have of each other in the following meetings. The anonymity and the lack of visual and auditory input the internet provides, helps decreasing social anxiety and people can reveal their true selves more comfortably through internet

Q:

FQ.8: According to Cooley, what is the “looking glass” with which we evaluate ourselves? 


A:

It is a metaphor for other people who react to us. We all naturally infer what others think of us from their reactions and we use those inferences to build our own self-concepts.

Q:

FQ.9: What are Pygmalion effects in psychology, and how were such effects demonstrated in elementary school classrooms? 


A:

Pygmalion effects are the beliefs and expectations other have of a person that to some degree can create reality by influencing that person’s self-concept and behavior. Demonstrated by school children were some were suggested to be special educational gifted and this expectation of the teacher has actually shown itself in increased intelligence and academic success in these particular children.

Q:

FQ.10: What is the sociometer theory of self-esteem, and what evidence supports it? 


A:

The theory proposes that self-esteem acts like a meter to inform us of the degree to which we are likely to be accepted or rejected by others.


 Evidence: 

- Individual differences in self-esteem correlate strongly with individual differences in the degree to which people believe that they are generally accepted or rejected by others.

 - People’s self esteem increased after praise, social acceptance or other satisfying social experiences and decreased after evidence of social rejection. 

- Feedback about success or failure on a test had greater effects on self-esteem if the person was led to believe that others would hear of it than if the person was led to believe no one would know. If self-esteem depended just on our own judgements, the fact that others knew wouldn’t matter how well we did.

Q:

FQ.11: What is some evidence that people construct a self-concept by comparing themselves with a reference group? How can a change in reference group can alter self-esteem? 


A:

In a group of people every individual describes themselves with a trait that distinguishes them from the rest of the group. In accordance with the changes observed or the change in the whole status quo can change a person’s self-image depending on the aspect of the group the person compares themselves with

Q:

FQ.12: What are two means by which people build and maintain inflated views of themselves? 


A:

1. The self-serving attributional bias, which is our tendency to attribute our successes to ourselves and our failures to other persons and external circumstances. 2. Selective long-term memory, which is the phenomenon in which we remember mostly positive things about ourselves and seemingly erase the negative ones.

Q:

FQ.1: In what sense are people natural psychologists?

A:

We can naturally understand the psychological world, ourselves and those around us; even with no professional education we are able to make accurate predictions and extrapolations about other people’s behavior.

Chap 13 FQ

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