Chap 1&2 FQ an der Leiden University | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.3: What reasons can you think of for why Descartes’ theory, despite its intuitive appeal, was unsuitable for a complete psychology? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

According to Descartes’ theory, the soul thought of a proper response to a sensory input and made the body respond accordingly by pulling threads, releasing liquids etc. The actions of the body were enabled for scientific study by having been attributed a scientific and physical explanation. However the prospect of a completely immaterial concept that is the soul, not bound to the laws of the nature, having physical effects on our body solely by thought did not bring the mind and mental processes into the scientific realm where it could be studied in greater detail.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.4: How did Hobbes’ materialism help lay the groundwork for a science of psychology? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Thomas Hobbes’ theory has completely disregarded the concept of an immaterial soul and attributed every thought process and their physical reflections to the body. This way, every human action, along with the motives and mental processes, would be bound to the laws of nature and could be studied in a scientific manner

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.5: How did the nineteenth-century understanding of the nervous system inspire a theory of behaviour called reflexology?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The prospect of bodily movement being completely independent of a soul brought the question of if the consciousness was also bound to the human body as well. If so, every single human action would simply be a nervous reaction to environmental stimuli – a reflex. By this definition, from the smallest to the most complex human behaviour would be the doing of our bodies, independent from a soul, as a response to whatever it comes across.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.6: How did the discoveries of localization of function in the brain help establish the idea that the mind can be studies scientifically? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

It was now known all human behaviour and thought that had been attributed to the soul in the past was now considered the doing of our body. The brain was the centre of this chain of command, and it utilised different portions of itself to complete various tasks. So it was concluded that the brain –which was completely within the realm of science – basically “contained” the attributions of the old concept of soul now, and it could be studied to understand in greater detail the human behaviour. It was basically a conversion of the soul to our plane in a material vessel that it could be studied within.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.7: How would you explain the origin of complex ideas and thoughts according to British Empiricism? What role did the law of association by contiguity play in this philosophy? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

As for British empiricists, a child was born with their mind like a blank slate (tabula rasa) and all the ideas and thoughts they obtain were merely reflections of sensory experience within our minds. The small elemental ideas created and left there by these experiences came together to form greater and much more complex thoughts. When the mind encountered two ideas that occurred at the same time (simultaneously) or right after one another (contiguously) it had associated them. This connection ensured that when one of the ideas resurfaced, the other one was triggered too. This was called association by contiguity and was considered a fundamental machinery of the human mind. Association by contiguity helped explain how fragments of ideas created by sensory input could build up to complex ideas and thoughts.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.8: How would you describe the influence that empiricist philosophy has had on psychology? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

It has certainly laid foundations of a much better understanding of the learning and memory functions of the brain. It has made a solid proposal on how sensory feedback and its images in our brain could add up to a complete and complex concept – how we “learn” something; and how triggering one of these elements could resurface others – how we “remember” something.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.9: Why is the ability to learn dependent on inborn knowledge? In Kant’s nativist philosophy, what is the distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Kant and his nativist philosophy argued that for a child to be able to obtain, memorize, combine and utilize any idea or thought that occurs, the brain needs the prior furnishing of these abilities. The basic mechanisms of learning, storage and construction of new information was considered to have been acquired at birth, namely a priori knowledge. Every single piece of information that has been obtained after birth via sensory experience was considered a posteriori knowledge and was in need of a priori knowledge to “be known”.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.10: How did Darwin’s theory of natural selection offer a scientific foundation for explaining behaviour by describing its functions? How did it provide a basis for understanding the origin of a priori knowledge? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Darwin and his theory of natural selection argued that just as physical aspects that promote survival and reproduction are prone to being passed on rather than being eradicated; mental mechanisms and behaviour that help us survive and reproduce could also be passed on by natural selection, rendering certain behavioural tendencies a priori knowledge. This application of the theory to a priori knowledge has provided it with a solid foundation as to what the evolutionary reasons of the development of this type of knowledge could be

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.12: How do neural, physiological, genetic, and evolutionary explanations differ from one another? How would you apply these explanations toward an understanding of jealousy? 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Neural explanation focuses on explaining the effects of the processes and structures of the neural system on human behaviour. Physiological explanation takes on a wider perspective and involves chemical and biological material as well, such as hormones and medicine while explaining behaviour. Genetic explanation works with different genes individuals inherit, and the causality between the differences between these genes and human behaviour; basically how which genes affect which behaviours. Evolutionary explanation could be considered to be relatively broader; working with humane functions and natural mechanics brought by evolution in not only an individual, but the species as a whole. The neural connections of the brain and complex associations with it makes regarding past experience with others concerns a neural explanation of jealousy. The role hormones and various chemicals play in the process of thought and response to situations that trigger jealousy would be the case for physiological explanation. The role of inherited genes and their role in defining characteristics of thought processes and reactions to a possible threat to the relationship with a significant someone would be the concern of genetic explanation. The role of various biological and social mechanisms in the human brain, developed through natural selection, in defining the characteristics of jealousy-inflicted conflict and methods of coping with it would be the subject of evolutionary explanations.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.13: How do learning and cognitive explanations differ? How would you apply each of them toward an understanding of jealousy? 


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Learning explanation is rather concerned with what kind of changes on the human behaviour certain environmental experiences can inflict. Cognitive explanations take in consideration the effects of these environmental experiences to previous or inherent knowledge or beliefs, and uses these effects on cognitive abilities as a step towards understanding how behaviour changes through experience. Learning explanations, in the context of understanding jealousy, could be used to analyse the jealous experiences of a person with past significant others. This would help understand the thought patterns that led to a certain idea of jealousy, and how this inflicts a certain reaction towards the potential threat or the significant other. Cognitive explanations take in account the unconscious memory and in-built mechanisms of the mind as well. This could help understand what processes of the mind while thinking about a threatening relationship were involved in the thought process – as well as what environmental and social stimuli was received and how it was processed to come up with an idea and a response to perceived jealousy.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.14: How do social and cultural explanations differ? How would you apply each of them toward an understanding of jealousy? 


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Social psychology is concerned with immediate results of social and environmental input on individuals and groups; whereas cultural explanations observe a deal of settled social traditions as well, to draw a conclusion about their effects on people’s behaviour and thoughts. An application of social psychology towards jealousy would be analysing a person’s idea about a relationship, what is perceived as a possible threat to a social relationship. A cultural approach would involve the understanding of an agreed upon definition of social or romantic infidelity, what pattern of thoughts and reactions and generally accepted for such situation and generally how it is seen convenient to deal with them

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FQ.2: What was Descartes’ version of dualism? How did it help pave the way for a science of psychology?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

According to Descartes, common behaviour aimed towards survival, reproduction, communication, sustenance etc. and all reflexes were the acts of the body, and the soul could only be responsible for the only uncommon act between humans and animals: thinking. He argued that the soul was located in the pineal gland of the brain and somehow triggered physical movements and reactions through the immaterial concept of pure thought. This point of view attributed many of the actions and processes to the material human body that were previously attributed to the immaterial soul; bringing human behaviour and reflexes somewhat closer to the scientific realm.

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

FQ.3: What reasons can you think of for why Descartes’ theory, despite its intuitive appeal, was unsuitable for a complete psychology? 


A:

According to Descartes’ theory, the soul thought of a proper response to a sensory input and made the body respond accordingly by pulling threads, releasing liquids etc. The actions of the body were enabled for scientific study by having been attributed a scientific and physical explanation. However the prospect of a completely immaterial concept that is the soul, not bound to the laws of the nature, having physical effects on our body solely by thought did not bring the mind and mental processes into the scientific realm where it could be studied in greater detail.

Q:

FQ.4: How did Hobbes’ materialism help lay the groundwork for a science of psychology? 


A:

Thomas Hobbes’ theory has completely disregarded the concept of an immaterial soul and attributed every thought process and their physical reflections to the body. This way, every human action, along with the motives and mental processes, would be bound to the laws of nature and could be studied in a scientific manner

Q:

FQ.5: How did the nineteenth-century understanding of the nervous system inspire a theory of behaviour called reflexology?

A:

The prospect of bodily movement being completely independent of a soul brought the question of if the consciousness was also bound to the human body as well. If so, every single human action would simply be a nervous reaction to environmental stimuli – a reflex. By this definition, from the smallest to the most complex human behaviour would be the doing of our bodies, independent from a soul, as a response to whatever it comes across.

Q:

FQ.6: How did the discoveries of localization of function in the brain help establish the idea that the mind can be studies scientifically? 


A:

It was now known all human behaviour and thought that had been attributed to the soul in the past was now considered the doing of our body. The brain was the centre of this chain of command, and it utilised different portions of itself to complete various tasks. So it was concluded that the brain –which was completely within the realm of science – basically “contained” the attributions of the old concept of soul now, and it could be studied to understand in greater detail the human behaviour. It was basically a conversion of the soul to our plane in a material vessel that it could be studied within.

Q:

FQ.7: How would you explain the origin of complex ideas and thoughts according to British Empiricism? What role did the law of association by contiguity play in this philosophy? 


A:

As for British empiricists, a child was born with their mind like a blank slate (tabula rasa) and all the ideas and thoughts they obtain were merely reflections of sensory experience within our minds. The small elemental ideas created and left there by these experiences came together to form greater and much more complex thoughts. When the mind encountered two ideas that occurred at the same time (simultaneously) or right after one another (contiguously) it had associated them. This connection ensured that when one of the ideas resurfaced, the other one was triggered too. This was called association by contiguity and was considered a fundamental machinery of the human mind. Association by contiguity helped explain how fragments of ideas created by sensory input could build up to complex ideas and thoughts.

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Q:

FQ.8: How would you describe the influence that empiricist philosophy has had on psychology? 


A:

It has certainly laid foundations of a much better understanding of the learning and memory functions of the brain. It has made a solid proposal on how sensory feedback and its images in our brain could add up to a complete and complex concept – how we “learn” something; and how triggering one of these elements could resurface others – how we “remember” something.

Q:

FQ.9: Why is the ability to learn dependent on inborn knowledge? In Kant’s nativist philosophy, what is the distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge? 


A:

Kant and his nativist philosophy argued that for a child to be able to obtain, memorize, combine and utilize any idea or thought that occurs, the brain needs the prior furnishing of these abilities. The basic mechanisms of learning, storage and construction of new information was considered to have been acquired at birth, namely a priori knowledge. Every single piece of information that has been obtained after birth via sensory experience was considered a posteriori knowledge and was in need of a priori knowledge to “be known”.

Q:

FQ.10: How did Darwin’s theory of natural selection offer a scientific foundation for explaining behaviour by describing its functions? How did it provide a basis for understanding the origin of a priori knowledge? 


A:

Darwin and his theory of natural selection argued that just as physical aspects that promote survival and reproduction are prone to being passed on rather than being eradicated; mental mechanisms and behaviour that help us survive and reproduce could also be passed on by natural selection, rendering certain behavioural tendencies a priori knowledge. This application of the theory to a priori knowledge has provided it with a solid foundation as to what the evolutionary reasons of the development of this type of knowledge could be

Q:

FQ.12: How do neural, physiological, genetic, and evolutionary explanations differ from one another? How would you apply these explanations toward an understanding of jealousy? 


A:

Neural explanation focuses on explaining the effects of the processes and structures of the neural system on human behaviour. Physiological explanation takes on a wider perspective and involves chemical and biological material as well, such as hormones and medicine while explaining behaviour. Genetic explanation works with different genes individuals inherit, and the causality between the differences between these genes and human behaviour; basically how which genes affect which behaviours. Evolutionary explanation could be considered to be relatively broader; working with humane functions and natural mechanics brought by evolution in not only an individual, but the species as a whole. The neural connections of the brain and complex associations with it makes regarding past experience with others concerns a neural explanation of jealousy. The role hormones and various chemicals play in the process of thought and response to situations that trigger jealousy would be the case for physiological explanation. The role of inherited genes and their role in defining characteristics of thought processes and reactions to a possible threat to the relationship with a significant someone would be the concern of genetic explanation. The role of various biological and social mechanisms in the human brain, developed through natural selection, in defining the characteristics of jealousy-inflicted conflict and methods of coping with it would be the subject of evolutionary explanations.

Q:

FQ.13: How do learning and cognitive explanations differ? How would you apply each of them toward an understanding of jealousy? 


A:

Learning explanation is rather concerned with what kind of changes on the human behaviour certain environmental experiences can inflict. Cognitive explanations take in consideration the effects of these environmental experiences to previous or inherent knowledge or beliefs, and uses these effects on cognitive abilities as a step towards understanding how behaviour changes through experience. Learning explanations, in the context of understanding jealousy, could be used to analyse the jealous experiences of a person with past significant others. This would help understand the thought patterns that led to a certain idea of jealousy, and how this inflicts a certain reaction towards the potential threat or the significant other. Cognitive explanations take in account the unconscious memory and in-built mechanisms of the mind as well. This could help understand what processes of the mind while thinking about a threatening relationship were involved in the thought process – as well as what environmental and social stimuli was received and how it was processed to come up with an idea and a response to perceived jealousy.

Q:

FQ.14: How do social and cultural explanations differ? How would you apply each of them toward an understanding of jealousy? 


A:

Social psychology is concerned with immediate results of social and environmental input on individuals and groups; whereas cultural explanations observe a deal of settled social traditions as well, to draw a conclusion about their effects on people’s behaviour and thoughts. An application of social psychology towards jealousy would be analysing a person’s idea about a relationship, what is perceived as a possible threat to a social relationship. A cultural approach would involve the understanding of an agreed upon definition of social or romantic infidelity, what pattern of thoughts and reactions and generally accepted for such situation and generally how it is seen convenient to deal with them

Q:

FQ.2: What was Descartes’ version of dualism? How did it help pave the way for a science of psychology?

A:

According to Descartes, common behaviour aimed towards survival, reproduction, communication, sustenance etc. and all reflexes were the acts of the body, and the soul could only be responsible for the only uncommon act between humans and animals: thinking. He argued that the soul was located in the pineal gland of the brain and somehow triggered physical movements and reactions through the immaterial concept of pure thought. This point of view attributed many of the actions and processes to the material human body that were previously attributed to the immaterial soul; bringing human behaviour and reflexes somewhat closer to the scientific realm.

Chap 1&2 FQ

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