English Criminal Law an der Humboldt-Universität Zu Berlin | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für English Criminal Law an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the purposes of punishment?

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- Retribution = Vergeltung

  Retaliation (vengeance) = Vegreltung/Rache

  Denunciation = Anprangerung/Verurteilung/Brandmarkung

- Deterrence = Abschreckung durch Angst vor Strafe

- Incapacitation = Unfähigmachung/Entmündigung

- Rehabilitation = Resozialisierung/Wiedereingliederung → to enforce moral values (problematic)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

what influence did the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) have on the english criminal law?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

opens up the possibility of depriving people of their liberty by imprisonment and offers further provisions, for example, for the prevention of punishment

+ grat impact on procedural rights

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

There are 4 different ways in which "duty imposed by law" can lead to actus reus by omission:

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. Person is guilty of misconduct in a public office

2. Where there is a special relationship between the parties

3. Where the Defendant has voluntarily accepted responsibility for the other

4. Where there is a dangerous situation caused by the defendant and he has failed to help

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How to prove the chain of Causation

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

the procecution (Staatsanwaltschaft) has to prove that the defendant's conduct (Verhalten) was

• The factual cause of that consequence (tatsächlche Ursache dieser folge)

• The legal cause of that consequence (rechtliche Ursache)

• That there was no intervening act which broke the chain of causation.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How to establish Actus Reus?

(4 types)

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- through conduct (Verhalten)

- a result or consequence

- a state of affairs (ein Zustand)

- an omission

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Define a negligent act

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A negligent act is one which falls below the standards expected of a reasonable ordinary prudent person.

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What is gross negligence?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Gross negligence is where the ‚negligence of the accused went beyond a mere matter of compensation between subjects and showed such disregard for the life and safety of others as to amount to a crime against the State and conduct deserving of punishment 

(Batemen 1925)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is murder?

(no statute law definition, it is common law)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The unlawful killing of a human being under the Queen‘s peace with the intention to kill or cause grievous bodily harm

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

what is the common law made of?

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- consists of judicial precedents (= richterliche Präzedenzfälle)

= case law made by judges


(small part of criminal law)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the purposes of the Criminal Law?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- to protect individuals

- to preserve order in society

- to punish offenders 

- to enforce moral values 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

In principle, failing to act does not constitute a crime, but there are exceptions:

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. Statute (gesetzlich)

2. Contractual duty to act (vertragliche Verpflichtung)

3. Duty imposed by law

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

name some functions of the criminal law

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Instrument of social control 


- Regulates the powers of the state and empowers the state in certain aspects

   → limits and controls legitimate the procedures and sanctions of the state by setting parameters


- Guide to the citizens of the state

   → By indication limits of legitimate activities that a person can do + predicting the consequence if a person fails to stay within the limitations; clear, stable, accessible

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Q:

What are the purposes of punishment?

A:

- Retribution = Vergeltung

  Retaliation (vengeance) = Vegreltung/Rache

  Denunciation = Anprangerung/Verurteilung/Brandmarkung

- Deterrence = Abschreckung durch Angst vor Strafe

- Incapacitation = Unfähigmachung/Entmündigung

- Rehabilitation = Resozialisierung/Wiedereingliederung → to enforce moral values (problematic)

Q:

what influence did the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) have on the english criminal law?

A:

opens up the possibility of depriving people of their liberty by imprisonment and offers further provisions, for example, for the prevention of punishment

+ grat impact on procedural rights

Q:

There are 4 different ways in which "duty imposed by law" can lead to actus reus by omission:

A:

1. Person is guilty of misconduct in a public office

2. Where there is a special relationship between the parties

3. Where the Defendant has voluntarily accepted responsibility for the other

4. Where there is a dangerous situation caused by the defendant and he has failed to help

Q:

How to prove the chain of Causation

A:

the procecution (Staatsanwaltschaft) has to prove that the defendant's conduct (Verhalten) was

• The factual cause of that consequence (tatsächlche Ursache dieser folge)

• The legal cause of that consequence (rechtliche Ursache)

• That there was no intervening act which broke the chain of causation.

Q:

How to establish Actus Reus?

(4 types)

A:

- through conduct (Verhalten)

- a result or consequence

- a state of affairs (ein Zustand)

- an omission

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Q:

Define a negligent act

A:

A negligent act is one which falls below the standards expected of a reasonable ordinary prudent person.

Q:

What is gross negligence?

A:

Gross negligence is where the ‚negligence of the accused went beyond a mere matter of compensation between subjects and showed such disregard for the life and safety of others as to amount to a crime against the State and conduct deserving of punishment 

(Batemen 1925)

Q:

What is murder?

(no statute law definition, it is common law)

A:

The unlawful killing of a human being under the Queen‘s peace with the intention to kill or cause grievous bodily harm

Q:

what is the common law made of?

A:

- consists of judicial precedents (= richterliche Präzedenzfälle)

= case law made by judges


(small part of criminal law)

Q:

What are the purposes of the Criminal Law?

A:

- to protect individuals

- to preserve order in society

- to punish offenders 

- to enforce moral values 

Q:

In principle, failing to act does not constitute a crime, but there are exceptions:

A:

1. Statute (gesetzlich)

2. Contractual duty to act (vertragliche Verpflichtung)

3. Duty imposed by law

Q:

name some functions of the criminal law

A:

- Instrument of social control 


- Regulates the powers of the state and empowers the state in certain aspects

   → limits and controls legitimate the procedures and sanctions of the state by setting parameters


- Guide to the citizens of the state

   → By indication limits of legitimate activities that a person can do + predicting the consequence if a person fails to stay within the limitations; clear, stable, accessible

English Criminal Law

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