DS1 an der HSR - Hochschule Für Technik Rapperswil | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain "Tightly and Loosly Coupled"

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Tightly: meaning processing elements or nodes have access to common memory
  • Loosely: They dont have that
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain "Homogeneous/Heterogenous Systems"

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Homogeneous: All processors of same tpye
  • Heterogeneous: System contains processors of different types
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain what defines a small scale and large scale System

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Small Scale: WebApp + database
  • Large Scale: with more than 2 machines
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the KEY difference between Decentralized and Distributed Systems

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

They are alsmost the same, but decentralized is not owned by one actor. 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain how the following key words apply to "Controlled Distributed Systems"

  1. Responisble Organization
  2. Churn
  3. Environment
  4. Availability
  5. Is it Homogenous or Heterogenous?
  6. What works well:
  7. NAT
  8. Consitency
  9. Replication
  10. Transparency
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • 1 responsible organization
  • Low churn
  • Secure environment
  • High availability
  • Homogeneous or Heterogeneous
  • What works well:
    • Consistent hashing
    • Master nodes, central coordinator
  • NAT: network under control client/server -> no nat issues
  • Consistency
    • Leader election
  • Replication principles
    • More replicas, higher everything, need consistent replicas
  • Transparency applies

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain how the following key words apply to "Fully Decentralized Systems"

  1. Responisble Organization
  2. Churn
  3. Environment
  4. Availability
  5. Is it Homogenous or Heterogenous?
  6. What works well:
  7. NAT
  8. Consitency
  9. Replication
  10. Transparency
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • N responsible organizations
  • High churn
  • Hostile environment
  • Unpredictable availability
  • Heterogeneous
  • What works well:
    • Consistent hashing
    • Flooding/broadcasting (bitcoin)
  • NAT: both nat and direct connectivity huge problems
  • Consistency
    • Weak consistency, proof of stake (eventually consistent)
  • Replication same as Distributed 
  • Transparency same as Distributed


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain what the CAP Theorem is

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Distributed data store cannot be consistent, available and partition tolerant at the same time
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the words:

  • Consistency
  • Availability
  • Partition (tolerant)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Consistency: Every node has same consistent state
  • Availability: Every non-failing node always returns response
  • Partition Tolerant: The System coninues to be consisten even when network partitions
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain Vertical Scaling (in short)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Scale up, more memory, faster CPU

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name the pros and cons to Vertical Scaling, and it's best application (usage)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Pros
    • Lower cost with small scale
    • No adaption of software required
    • Less administrative effort
  • Cons
    • HW limits for scaling
    • Risk of HW failure causing outage
    • More difficult to add fault-tolerance

Best principle for small and simple applications. 


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain Horizontal Scaling (in short)

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Scale out, more machines


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name the different categorizations of Distributed Systems

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Tightly/Lously coupled
  • Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Systems
  • Small/Large Scale Systems
  • Decentralized/Distributed Systems
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

Explain "Tightly and Loosly Coupled"

A:
  • Tightly: meaning processing elements or nodes have access to common memory
  • Loosely: They dont have that
Q:

Explain "Homogeneous/Heterogenous Systems"

A:
  • Homogeneous: All processors of same tpye
  • Heterogeneous: System contains processors of different types
Q:

Explain what defines a small scale and large scale System

A:
  • Small Scale: WebApp + database
  • Large Scale: with more than 2 machines
Q:

Explain the KEY difference between Decentralized and Distributed Systems

A:

They are alsmost the same, but decentralized is not owned by one actor. 


Q:

Explain how the following key words apply to "Controlled Distributed Systems"

  1. Responisble Organization
  2. Churn
  3. Environment
  4. Availability
  5. Is it Homogenous or Heterogenous?
  6. What works well:
  7. NAT
  8. Consitency
  9. Replication
  10. Transparency
A:
  • 1 responsible organization
  • Low churn
  • Secure environment
  • High availability
  • Homogeneous or Heterogeneous
  • What works well:
    • Consistent hashing
    • Master nodes, central coordinator
  • NAT: network under control client/server -> no nat issues
  • Consistency
    • Leader election
  • Replication principles
    • More replicas, higher everything, need consistent replicas
  • Transparency applies

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Q:

Explain how the following key words apply to "Fully Decentralized Systems"

  1. Responisble Organization
  2. Churn
  3. Environment
  4. Availability
  5. Is it Homogenous or Heterogenous?
  6. What works well:
  7. NAT
  8. Consitency
  9. Replication
  10. Transparency
A:
  • N responsible organizations
  • High churn
  • Hostile environment
  • Unpredictable availability
  • Heterogeneous
  • What works well:
    • Consistent hashing
    • Flooding/broadcasting (bitcoin)
  • NAT: both nat and direct connectivity huge problems
  • Consistency
    • Weak consistency, proof of stake (eventually consistent)
  • Replication same as Distributed 
  • Transparency same as Distributed


Q:

Explain what the CAP Theorem is

A:
Distributed data store cannot be consistent, available and partition tolerant at the same time
Q:

Explain the words:

  • Consistency
  • Availability
  • Partition (tolerant)
A:
  • Consistency: Every node has same consistent state
  • Availability: Every non-failing node always returns response
  • Partition Tolerant: The System coninues to be consisten even when network partitions
Q:

Explain Vertical Scaling (in short)

A:

Scale up, more memory, faster CPU

Q:

Name the pros and cons to Vertical Scaling, and it's best application (usage)

A:
  • Pros
    • Lower cost with small scale
    • No adaption of software required
    • Less administrative effort
  • Cons
    • HW limits for scaling
    • Risk of HW failure causing outage
    • More difficult to add fault-tolerance

Best principle for small and simple applications. 


Q:

Explain Horizontal Scaling (in short)

A:

Scale out, more machines


Q:

Name the different categorizations of Distributed Systems

A:
  • Tightly/Lously coupled
  • Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Systems
  • Small/Large Scale Systems
  • Decentralized/Distributed Systems
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