Psychologie an der Hochschule Neu-Ulm | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Psychologie an der Hochschule Neu-Ulm

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What do you know about funktionalism?

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aim to discover the evolved functions of thoughts and feelings

William James 

Strongly influenced by Darwin, evolutionary theory assumption that thinking, smalling etc. Developed because it was adaptive


is one of the early milestones 
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Critical thinking

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thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden biases, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions;

(how you jump from the conclusion to the data is much more unclear)


Think about a hypothese/read/see and make a conclusion.

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Behaviourism 


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psychology as the scientific study of observable and measurable behavior

how do people respond/behave in different situations; feeling and thinking is not observable; Watson and Skinner; Little Albert: conditiona child to fear a distinctive stimulus that normally would not be feared by a child (in this case, furry objects)

Skinner:

  1. Emphasis on learning – everyone of us can be anything
  2. Anti-Mentalism – scientific thinks
  3. No differences across the spieces 
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Humanistic Psychology ++

and who?
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critics of behaviorism; focus on human needs and on environments that nurture or limit personal growth;

 Maslow; Rogers active listening (Business Psychology!)

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emplain the empirical approach

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It's an evidence-based method that draws on observation and experimentation.

Data based. It’s the opposite of the Freudian psychology

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Psychology’s first laboratory

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First milestone of psychology

Wilhelm Wundt, 1879 at the University of Leipzig Wanted to measure atoms of the mind with introspection 

(giving a very precise description). E.g.: explain how a flower smells to someone who hasn’t a clue; How do you remember stuff? 

Problem: You need persons that can verbalize very precise, and it needed things with which you were able to describe you internal process.

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How can we reduce stress?

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Those been assosiated with reducing stress:

- Exercise

- Relaxation and Meditiation

- Faith communities

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attatchment and self-concept (infancy and childhood)

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Attachment: humans are social creatures; babies develop attachment to their caregivers - not only for nurishment but for wormth 

Self-concept: about age 12, children have developed a self-concept (understnad who they are - gender, traits,...)

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What happens in infancy and childhood? (based on topic: brain, motor, memory development)

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Brain development: after birth the invant hast just brain cells, more than later on, but not connected so the nervous system has to built the branches

Motor development: same sequenze for all infants (sit, crawl, walk, run)

Infant memory: remembering before age 4 is hard but learning and memory took place before that ( we jsut don't remember)

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Are newborns dumm?

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A newborn has actually a lot given from birth on like:

reflexes - motor reflexes (pretty strong) - help to stay close to caregivers 

show habituation 

has preferneces - looking towards faces, turns towards voices


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Is in our life more stability/continuity or do we change over our life-span?

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Trick question, some characteristics are more stable than others. 

Like temperament is very consistent from very young to mid-adulthood. 

Other characteristics are not so stable like social attitudes which change especially during adolescence.

Generally: we all change!


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What is right, that we develop continous or in stages?

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Stage theory is supported by the work of Piaget and the milestones that have to be mastered (for example, egocentrism, conservation, object permanence). Stage theory is also supported by Kohlberg’s model on moral development and Erikson’s psychosocial development. It's a theory that grows happens through differnet stages.

The idea of stability in personality across the life span is supported by research on temperament and personality traits such as extraversion that remain stable across many years and that are strongly correlated with outcomes(such as length of marriage).

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  • 422 Studierende
  • 22 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Psychologie Kurs an der Hochschule Neu-Ulm - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What do you know about funktionalism?

A:

aim to discover the evolved functions of thoughts and feelings

William James 

Strongly influenced by Darwin, evolutionary theory assumption that thinking, smalling etc. Developed because it was adaptive


is one of the early milestones 
Q:

Critical thinking

A:

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden biases, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions;

(how you jump from the conclusion to the data is much more unclear)


Think about a hypothese/read/see and make a conclusion.

Q:

Behaviourism 


A:

psychology as the scientific study of observable and measurable behavior

how do people respond/behave in different situations; feeling and thinking is not observable; Watson and Skinner; Little Albert: conditiona child to fear a distinctive stimulus that normally would not be feared by a child (in this case, furry objects)

Skinner:

  1. Emphasis on learning – everyone of us can be anything
  2. Anti-Mentalism – scientific thinks
  3. No differences across the spieces 
Q:

Humanistic Psychology ++

and who?
A:

critics of behaviorism; focus on human needs and on environments that nurture or limit personal growth;

 Maslow; Rogers active listening (Business Psychology!)

Q:

emplain the empirical approach

A:

It's an evidence-based method that draws on observation and experimentation.

Data based. It’s the opposite of the Freudian psychology

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Psychology’s first laboratory

A:

First milestone of psychology

Wilhelm Wundt, 1879 at the University of Leipzig Wanted to measure atoms of the mind with introspection 

(giving a very precise description). E.g.: explain how a flower smells to someone who hasn’t a clue; How do you remember stuff? 

Problem: You need persons that can verbalize very precise, and it needed things with which you were able to describe you internal process.

Q:

How can we reduce stress?

A:

Those been assosiated with reducing stress:

- Exercise

- Relaxation and Meditiation

- Faith communities

Q:

attatchment and self-concept (infancy and childhood)

A:

Attachment: humans are social creatures; babies develop attachment to their caregivers - not only for nurishment but for wormth 

Self-concept: about age 12, children have developed a self-concept (understnad who they are - gender, traits,...)

Q:

What happens in infancy and childhood? (based on topic: brain, motor, memory development)

A:

Brain development: after birth the invant hast just brain cells, more than later on, but not connected so the nervous system has to built the branches

Motor development: same sequenze for all infants (sit, crawl, walk, run)

Infant memory: remembering before age 4 is hard but learning and memory took place before that ( we jsut don't remember)

Q:

Are newborns dumm?

A:

A newborn has actually a lot given from birth on like:

reflexes - motor reflexes (pretty strong) - help to stay close to caregivers 

show habituation 

has preferneces - looking towards faces, turns towards voices


Q:

Is in our life more stability/continuity or do we change over our life-span?

A:

Trick question, some characteristics are more stable than others. 

Like temperament is very consistent from very young to mid-adulthood. 

Other characteristics are not so stable like social attitudes which change especially during adolescence.

Generally: we all change!


Q:

What is right, that we develop continous or in stages?

A:

Stage theory is supported by the work of Piaget and the milestones that have to be mastered (for example, egocentrism, conservation, object permanence). Stage theory is also supported by Kohlberg’s model on moral development and Erikson’s psychosocial development. It's a theory that grows happens through differnet stages.

The idea of stability in personality across the life span is supported by research on temperament and personality traits such as extraversion that remain stable across many years and that are strongly correlated with outcomes(such as length of marriage).

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