DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics an der Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

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The genome of cells is altered when cells differentiate in specific direction. 

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Right. 

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If each cell has the same genes, how can cells undergo different developments? Explain the mechanism.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

By differential gene expression.


Mechanism:


  • only a small part of genetics are expressed in each cells which are specific for that cell type
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Define "chromatin". 

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Eukaryotic DNA that forms a complex with proteins

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What happens with unused genes in differential gene expression

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They keep the potential for being expressed. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the right order?


- Translation (1)

- RNA processing (2)

- Transcription (3)

- Posttranscriptional modification (4)


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

3, 2, 1, 4 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

On which levels can gene expression be regulated and how?

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- Differential gene transcription (regulates which genes are transcribed into nuclear RNA)


- Selective nuclear RNA processing (regulates which of the transcripts become messenger RNA


- Selective mRNA translation (regulates which of the mRNAs are translated into proteins


- Differential protein modification (regulates which proteins are allowed to remain and function in the cell

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In differential gene expression, how many genes are expressed?

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Only a few.

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Which kind of histones do exist? 

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  • H1
  • H2A
  • H2B
  • H3
  • H4
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Why are histones positively charged

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Because they contain many lysines. 

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What is the basic unit of chromatin? 

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Nucleosome

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Nucleosomes consist of a core of ____ histones around which ____ loops of DNA are wrapped (approx. _____ base pairs). 

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8; 2; 140 

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What is genetic equivalence? What is an evidence for that?

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Genetic equivalence means that each somatic cell nucleus within an organism has identical chromosomes and therefore the same set of genes. 


Evidence for that is Dolly, the first adult vertebrate that was cloned from another adult. 


          

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Q:

The genome of cells is altered when cells differentiate in specific direction. 

A:

Right. 

Q:

If each cell has the same genes, how can cells undergo different developments? Explain the mechanism.

A:

By differential gene expression.


Mechanism:


  • only a small part of genetics are expressed in each cells which are specific for that cell type
Q:

Define "chromatin". 

A:

Eukaryotic DNA that forms a complex with proteins

Q:

What happens with unused genes in differential gene expression

A:

They keep the potential for being expressed. 

Q:

What is the right order?


- Translation (1)

- RNA processing (2)

- Transcription (3)

- Posttranscriptional modification (4)


A:

3, 2, 1, 4 

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Q:

On which levels can gene expression be regulated and how?

A:

- Differential gene transcription (regulates which genes are transcribed into nuclear RNA)


- Selective nuclear RNA processing (regulates which of the transcripts become messenger RNA


- Selective mRNA translation (regulates which of the mRNAs are translated into proteins


- Differential protein modification (regulates which proteins are allowed to remain and function in the cell

Q:

In differential gene expression, how many genes are expressed?

A:

Only a few.

Q:

Which kind of histones do exist? 

A:
  • H1
  • H2A
  • H2B
  • H3
  • H4
Q:

Why are histones positively charged

A:

Because they contain many lysines. 

Q:

What is the basic unit of chromatin? 

A:

Nucleosome

Q:

Nucleosomes consist of a core of ____ histones around which ____ loops of DNA are wrapped (approx. _____ base pairs). 

A:

8; 2; 140 

Q:

What is genetic equivalence? What is an evidence for that?

A:

Genetic equivalence means that each somatic cell nucleus within an organism has identical chromosomes and therefore the same set of genes. 


Evidence for that is Dolly, the first adult vertebrate that was cloned from another adult. 


          

  •                         

                                                       

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

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