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Lernmaterialien für Orga an der Hamburg School of Business Administration

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the span of control
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The span of control is the number of subordinates reporting to one supervisor 

FACTORS DETERINING THE SPAN OF CONTROL:
- Required/needed contacts
- degree of specialization 
- ability to communicate and strength of informal ties
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the 7-S-Model
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Model of an organization with 7 core variable, which are essential for the design of an Organization.
There is an interrelationship between the variables. 

  • STRATEGY: (H)
the strategy comprises all measures that are intended to generate a sustainable competitive advantage, i.e. including systematic resource allocation 
  • STRUCTURE: (H)
The organizational structure of the company shows who has to report to whom and how task are subdivided and delegated
  • SYSTEM: (H)
Provide the framework for the processes that occur in the ordinary course of daily operations, e.g information system, budgeting, manufacturing, performance measurement etc.
  • STYLE (S)
Corporate culture contains elements that are prescribed or exemplified by management, but on the other hand it also contains elements that have developed historically within the company
  • STAFF (S)
  • SHARED VALUES (S)
Determine the fundamental orientation of the company. This refers to the values and skills that affect the future development of the company. These values should be shared by the majority of employees to create a strong organizational culture 
  •  SKILLS
The characteristic skills that a company as a whole best masters. (Corporate skills )

HARD and SOFT Variables:
Hard variables are generally tangibles and concretely stated in the company. They can be traced (strategic papers, corporate plans, -presentations)

Soft variables are hardly tangible
Skills, Shared values, and cultural elements are constantly evolving within the company.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are shared Values?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explicit or implicit fundamental beliefs, concepts and principles that underlie the culture of an organization, and which guide decisions and behavior of its members.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name the different streams of organizational theory and explain briefly.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Classic Theories:
  • 19th century
  • organization as closed system
  • focus on productivity and efficiency of internal processes
  • Bsp. : Bureaucracy
Neoclassic Theories:
  • 1930s-1950s
  • organizations ass social systems 
  • focus on employee motivation and relations
  • Bsp.: Human relations approach
Modern Theories:
  • Organizations as open systems
  • Focus on Effectiveness in the environment 
  • Bsp.: Contingency theory

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
explain the link between contextual dimensions and organizational design
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Goals and Strategy of an organization are often valued as a driving force in organizational design. Nearly every design concept pays attention to this element ass a major factor. 
The right mix of structural desinf characteristics fits the contingency factors, but there is no one best solutution.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the cultural Iceberg Model (Edgar Schein)?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Visible Layer:
Artifacts and Creations
  • symbols, rituals, heroes
  • visible but in need of interpretation
Invisible Layers:
Espoused Values
  • Beliefs, values and attitudes
  • Partly visible, partly mechanical, tacid
Basic Assumptions
  • Almost mechanical, tacid
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When it comes to Organizational design, which two dimensions are there?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
CONTEXTUAL DIMENSION
Characterize and represent both the whole organization and describe the organizational setting.
  • size
  • goals &strategy
  • technology
  • environment
  • culture

STRUCTURAL DIMENSION
Provide labels to describe organizations internal characteristics
  • Formalization
  • Specialization
  • Hierarchy of authority
  • Centralization
  • Professionalism
  • Personnel Ratios
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What does the organizational culture steer in organizations?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Corporate culture has a high impact on decision taking and behaviors.
The closer organizational members act based on mutual beliefs the stronger is the effect of coordination.

Shared Organizational values have an impact on:
  • Guide managers decisions and actions
  • shape employee behavior
  • influence marketing efforts
  • build team spirit
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Dimensions of organizational Culture
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Attention to detail
  • outcome orientation
  • people orientation
  • team orientation
  • aggressiveness
  • stability
  • innovation and risk taking
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What makes a strong organizational culture? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Elements and Advantages

Strong cultures are organizational cultures in which key values are intensely held and widely shared
  • The more employees accept and the more their are committed to shared values the stronger the culture 
  • strong cultures affect managers planning, organization, leading and control 
  • strong connection between values and behavior 

Advantages
  • ofter associated with high organizational performance
  • high motivation and loyalty
  • stability and reliability
  • quick decision taking
Disadvantaged
  • tendency to foreclosure
  • restraint to new orientation
  • collective defensive demeanor
  • lack of flexibility

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the basic Dimensions of Structure?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Degree of specialization
How to divide the overall companies tasks into single tasks, how many  tasks should be unified in one job, how should jobs be departmentalized?
  • Hierarchy of authority, span of control
How should reporting lines be structured?
How many hierarchies of authorities does the company have?
What is the optimal span of control?
  • Centralized/Decentralized
Where should decisions been taken?
  • Professionalism and informal rules
What is an appropriate degree of formalization?
  • Link between the organisation and the external context/ environment
How to ensure that organizational system survive in a changing external context?
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is organizational design and what is it influenced by?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
There is no unique definition of organizational design, however different concepts exist:
  • Organizational design can be defined as the process of shaping/ reshaping organization structures and roles.
  • it is an alignment of structure, process, rewards, metrics and talent with the strategy of the business 
  • involves strategic decisions
  • can be viewed as a path to effective strategy execution
  • Involves contextual and strategic dimensions
The process entails making trade-offs of set on structural benefits against another.

 
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Q:
What is the span of control
A:
The span of control is the number of subordinates reporting to one supervisor 

FACTORS DETERINING THE SPAN OF CONTROL:
- Required/needed contacts
- degree of specialization 
- ability to communicate and strength of informal ties
Q:
What is the 7-S-Model
A:
Model of an organization with 7 core variable, which are essential for the design of an Organization.
There is an interrelationship between the variables. 

  • STRATEGY: (H)
the strategy comprises all measures that are intended to generate a sustainable competitive advantage, i.e. including systematic resource allocation 
  • STRUCTURE: (H)
The organizational structure of the company shows who has to report to whom and how task are subdivided and delegated
  • SYSTEM: (H)
Provide the framework for the processes that occur in the ordinary course of daily operations, e.g information system, budgeting, manufacturing, performance measurement etc.
  • STYLE (S)
Corporate culture contains elements that are prescribed or exemplified by management, but on the other hand it also contains elements that have developed historically within the company
  • STAFF (S)
  • SHARED VALUES (S)
Determine the fundamental orientation of the company. This refers to the values and skills that affect the future development of the company. These values should be shared by the majority of employees to create a strong organizational culture 
  •  SKILLS
The characteristic skills that a company as a whole best masters. (Corporate skills )

HARD and SOFT Variables:
Hard variables are generally tangibles and concretely stated in the company. They can be traced (strategic papers, corporate plans, -presentations)

Soft variables are hardly tangible
Skills, Shared values, and cultural elements are constantly evolving within the company.
Q:
What are shared Values?
A:
Explicit or implicit fundamental beliefs, concepts and principles that underlie the culture of an organization, and which guide decisions and behavior of its members.
Q:
Name the different streams of organizational theory and explain briefly.
A:
Classic Theories:
  • 19th century
  • organization as closed system
  • focus on productivity and efficiency of internal processes
  • Bsp. : Bureaucracy
Neoclassic Theories:
  • 1930s-1950s
  • organizations ass social systems 
  • focus on employee motivation and relations
  • Bsp.: Human relations approach
Modern Theories:
  • Organizations as open systems
  • Focus on Effectiveness in the environment 
  • Bsp.: Contingency theory

Q:
explain the link between contextual dimensions and organizational design
A:
Goals and Strategy of an organization are often valued as a driving force in organizational design. Nearly every design concept pays attention to this element ass a major factor. 
The right mix of structural desinf characteristics fits the contingency factors, but there is no one best solutution.
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is the cultural Iceberg Model (Edgar Schein)?
A:
Visible Layer:
Artifacts and Creations
  • symbols, rituals, heroes
  • visible but in need of interpretation
Invisible Layers:
Espoused Values
  • Beliefs, values and attitudes
  • Partly visible, partly mechanical, tacid
Basic Assumptions
  • Almost mechanical, tacid
Q:
When it comes to Organizational design, which two dimensions are there?
A:
CONTEXTUAL DIMENSION
Characterize and represent both the whole organization and describe the organizational setting.
  • size
  • goals &strategy
  • technology
  • environment
  • culture

STRUCTURAL DIMENSION
Provide labels to describe organizations internal characteristics
  • Formalization
  • Specialization
  • Hierarchy of authority
  • Centralization
  • Professionalism
  • Personnel Ratios
Q:
What does the organizational culture steer in organizations?
A:
Corporate culture has a high impact on decision taking and behaviors.
The closer organizational members act based on mutual beliefs the stronger is the effect of coordination.

Shared Organizational values have an impact on:
  • Guide managers decisions and actions
  • shape employee behavior
  • influence marketing efforts
  • build team spirit
Q:
Dimensions of organizational Culture
A:
  • Attention to detail
  • outcome orientation
  • people orientation
  • team orientation
  • aggressiveness
  • stability
  • innovation and risk taking
Q:
What makes a strong organizational culture? 
A:
Elements and Advantages

Strong cultures are organizational cultures in which key values are intensely held and widely shared
  • The more employees accept and the more their are committed to shared values the stronger the culture 
  • strong cultures affect managers planning, organization, leading and control 
  • strong connection between values and behavior 

Advantages
  • ofter associated with high organizational performance
  • high motivation and loyalty
  • stability and reliability
  • quick decision taking
Disadvantaged
  • tendency to foreclosure
  • restraint to new orientation
  • collective defensive demeanor
  • lack of flexibility

Q:
What are the basic Dimensions of Structure?
A:
  • Degree of specialization
How to divide the overall companies tasks into single tasks, how many  tasks should be unified in one job, how should jobs be departmentalized?
  • Hierarchy of authority, span of control
How should reporting lines be structured?
How many hierarchies of authorities does the company have?
What is the optimal span of control?
  • Centralized/Decentralized
Where should decisions been taken?
  • Professionalism and informal rules
What is an appropriate degree of formalization?
  • Link between the organisation and the external context/ environment
How to ensure that organizational system survive in a changing external context?
Q:
What is organizational design and what is it influenced by?
A:
There is no unique definition of organizational design, however different concepts exist:
  • Organizational design can be defined as the process of shaping/ reshaping organization structures and roles.
  • it is an alignment of structure, process, rewards, metrics and talent with the strategy of the business 
  • involves strategic decisions
  • can be viewed as a path to effective strategy execution
  • Involves contextual and strategic dimensions
The process entails making trade-offs of set on structural benefits against another.

 
Orga

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