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Lernmaterialien für RM an der FernUniversität in Hagen

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indirect observables

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require “relatively more subtle, complex, or indirect observations”. 

We note a person’s check mark beside “female” in a questionnaire and have indirectly observed that person’s gender. History books or minutes of corporate board meetings provide indirect observations of past social actions.

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dimension

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A specifiable aspect of a concept.
“Religiosity,” for example, might be specified in
terms of a belief dimension, a ritual dimension, a
devotional dimension, a knowledge dimension,
and so forth.

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conceptualization

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The mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions (concepts) are made more specific and precise. 


The process through which we specify what we mean when we use particular terms in research is called conceptualization.


So you want to study prejudice. What do you mean by “prejudice”? Are there different kinds of prejudice? What are they?



Henk: Making clear what you mean with the theoretical construct, its possible dimensions or aspects, and its attributes (values)
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direct observables

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those things we can observe rather simply and directly, like the color of an apple or the check mark on a questionnaire.

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conceptions

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summarize collections

of seemingly related observations and experiences.
Although the observations and experiences
are real, at least subjectively, conceptions,
and the concepts derived from them, are only
mental creations.

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indicator

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An observation that we choose to consider
as a reflection of a variable we wish to study.
Thus, for example, attending religious services
might be considered an indicator of religiosity.

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Deterministic relationship

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"If ... then always"

--> positive, linear or non-linear

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measurement

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careful, deliberate observations of the real world
for the purpose of describing objects and events
in terms of the attributes composing a variable

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concept

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- constructs derived

by mutual agreement from mental images (conceptions)


- result of conceptualization

- Kaplan (1964: 49) defines concept as a “family

of conceptions.” A concept is, as Kaplan notes, a

construct, something we create. Concepts such as

compassion and prejudice are constructs created

from your conception of them, my conception of

them, and the conceptions of all those who have

ever used these terms. They cannot be observed

directly or indirectly, because they don’t exist.

We made them up.

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three classes of things that scientists measure

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1. Direct observables

2. Indirect observables

3. Constructs

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constructs

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theoretical creations that are based on observations but that cannot be observed directly or indirectly


A good example is intelligence quotient, or IQ. It is constructed mathematically from observations of the answers given to a large number of questions on an IQ test. No one can directly or indirectly observe IQ. It is no more a “real” characteristic of people than is compassion or prejudice.

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specification

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The process through which

concepts are made more specific.

--> nominal definition

--> operational definition

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Q:

indirect observables

A:

require “relatively more subtle, complex, or indirect observations”. 

We note a person’s check mark beside “female” in a questionnaire and have indirectly observed that person’s gender. History books or minutes of corporate board meetings provide indirect observations of past social actions.

Q:

dimension

A:

A specifiable aspect of a concept.
“Religiosity,” for example, might be specified in
terms of a belief dimension, a ritual dimension, a
devotional dimension, a knowledge dimension,
and so forth.

Q:

conceptualization

A:

The mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions (concepts) are made more specific and precise. 


The process through which we specify what we mean when we use particular terms in research is called conceptualization.


So you want to study prejudice. What do you mean by “prejudice”? Are there different kinds of prejudice? What are they?



Henk: Making clear what you mean with the theoretical construct, its possible dimensions or aspects, and its attributes (values)
Q:

direct observables

A:

those things we can observe rather simply and directly, like the color of an apple or the check mark on a questionnaire.

Q:

conceptions

A:

summarize collections

of seemingly related observations and experiences.
Although the observations and experiences
are real, at least subjectively, conceptions,
and the concepts derived from them, are only
mental creations.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

indicator

A:

An observation that we choose to consider
as a reflection of a variable we wish to study.
Thus, for example, attending religious services
might be considered an indicator of religiosity.

Q:

Deterministic relationship

A:

"If ... then always"

--> positive, linear or non-linear

Q:

measurement

A:

careful, deliberate observations of the real world
for the purpose of describing objects and events
in terms of the attributes composing a variable

Q:

concept

A:

- constructs derived

by mutual agreement from mental images (conceptions)


- result of conceptualization

- Kaplan (1964: 49) defines concept as a “family

of conceptions.” A concept is, as Kaplan notes, a

construct, something we create. Concepts such as

compassion and prejudice are constructs created

from your conception of them, my conception of

them, and the conceptions of all those who have

ever used these terms. They cannot be observed

directly or indirectly, because they don’t exist.

We made them up.

Q:

three classes of things that scientists measure

A:

1. Direct observables

2. Indirect observables

3. Constructs

Q:

constructs

A:

theoretical creations that are based on observations but that cannot be observed directly or indirectly


A good example is intelligence quotient, or IQ. It is constructed mathematically from observations of the answers given to a large number of questions on an IQ test. No one can directly or indirectly observe IQ. It is no more a “real” characteristic of people than is compassion or prejudice.

Q:

specification

A:

The process through which

concepts are made more specific.

--> nominal definition

--> operational definition

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