Methoden Der Produktentwicklung an der Fachhochschule Lübeck | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

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Define Model

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A model is a simplified description of reality. Thus, is a form of abstraction of reality. It helps to understand
complexity and to deal with the limitations of the human mind.

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What is function model? What is its purpose?

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a function model models the functions of a technical system and their relationships


Purpose

  • analysis and understanding of the desired technical system
  • basis for the fuctional concept an the search for solutions
  • black-box approach, means a solution neutral formulation of requirements


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Name possible types of elements and relations.

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Elements

  • design variable, attributes
  • values, artefacts, CAD sketches
  • functions
  • requirements
  • parts of the product, components
  • states
  • tasks / process steps
  • individuals, groups, stakeholders

Relations

  • unidirectional
    • spatial
    • related to communication
  • directed
    • logical
      • necessary/sufficient condition
      • "requires"
      • INUS
      • "contains" (for decompostition)
    • flow of material / energy
    • flow of information
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Clustering

Objective

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organize many elements with pair-wise relationships / dependencies into groups with a small number of relationships / dependencies between seperate groups


used for modularization of complex products eg product family design

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Sequencing

Goal

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  • reordering of rows and columns of a DSM with the objective of arranging all existing dependecies at one side or at least asclose as possible to the diagonal
  • produces "smaller" feedback lops
  • triangular matrix - process without any iterations steps, no feedback loops
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Which attributes should an ADG contain?

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  • may change during design or use of the product and are
  • necessary to formulate INUS conditions > building plan for requirement derivation.
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Compare ADG to DMM and QFD!

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ADG - multi-level model

  • resolves dependencies in detail
  • higher modelling effort

DMM - 2-level model, maps two domains onto each other

QFD - 2 1/2 model

  • does not fully resolve dependencies between design variables
  • easier to create, visualize and communicate
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Challanges of Solution Generation

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  • Search Space is not the Solution Space
  • interpretation of the problem may depend on the designer
  • more than one solution of different value
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Solution methods with quanitative models.

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  • simplified models
    • Bsp. restrain system in car
    • simplify by focusing on most relevant effects
    • reverse abstraction
    • possibly along ADG
  • solution spaces
    • Bsp. front crahs vehicle design
    • use a physical surrogate model (Ersatzmodell)
    • compute solution spaces here for force-deformation characteristics
  • Experience-based Iteration
    • Bsp. Front crahs vehicle design, component design
    • trial and error solution generation to sub-problems
    • supported by engineering judgement
    • if requirements not independet, risk of iteration on system level
  • Numerical Optimization
    • Bsp. Front Crash vehicle design, component design
    • Input: iojective function and constraint functions (optimization problem min f subject to g)
    • Output: optimal design
  • Product Family Design
    • Bsp. Vehicle Chassis Design
    • common components can be identified by properies in overlapping solution spaces
  • Top-down vs Bottom-up Development
    • Top-down: design by reverse abstaction
    • buttom-up: evaluation
    • combination possible (good design with proven ability to build it)
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What is a quantitative model?

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Quantitative models are compact representations where a (single) (differential or difference) equation may describe the performance of the system for a large set of input functions and initial states

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Define Product Family.

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Collection of products and components that may be shared

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What are decisions driven by? Why use methods? How do you pick a method?

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Driven by

  • expreience
  • intuition
  • feeling
    > subjective process

use methodes to

  • rationalize and organize ingredients of decision process
  • making reasons or preferences transparent to others

choosing methods depends on

  • depth of analysis needed
  • available informatio and knowledge
  • effort willing to spend
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Q:

Define Model

A:

A model is a simplified description of reality. Thus, is a form of abstraction of reality. It helps to understand
complexity and to deal with the limitations of the human mind.

Q:

What is function model? What is its purpose?

A:

a function model models the functions of a technical system and their relationships


Purpose

  • analysis and understanding of the desired technical system
  • basis for the fuctional concept an the search for solutions
  • black-box approach, means a solution neutral formulation of requirements


Q:

Name possible types of elements and relations.

A:

Elements

  • design variable, attributes
  • values, artefacts, CAD sketches
  • functions
  • requirements
  • parts of the product, components
  • states
  • tasks / process steps
  • individuals, groups, stakeholders

Relations

  • unidirectional
    • spatial
    • related to communication
  • directed
    • logical
      • necessary/sufficient condition
      • "requires"
      • INUS
      • "contains" (for decompostition)
    • flow of material / energy
    • flow of information
Q:

Clustering

Objective

A:

organize many elements with pair-wise relationships / dependencies into groups with a small number of relationships / dependencies between seperate groups


used for modularization of complex products eg product family design

Q:

Sequencing

Goal

A:
  • reordering of rows and columns of a DSM with the objective of arranging all existing dependecies at one side or at least asclose as possible to the diagonal
  • produces "smaller" feedback lops
  • triangular matrix - process without any iterations steps, no feedback loops
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Which attributes should an ADG contain?

A:
  • may change during design or use of the product and are
  • necessary to formulate INUS conditions > building plan for requirement derivation.
Q:

Compare ADG to DMM and QFD!

A:

ADG - multi-level model

  • resolves dependencies in detail
  • higher modelling effort

DMM - 2-level model, maps two domains onto each other

QFD - 2 1/2 model

  • does not fully resolve dependencies between design variables
  • easier to create, visualize and communicate
Q:

Challanges of Solution Generation

A:
  • Search Space is not the Solution Space
  • interpretation of the problem may depend on the designer
  • more than one solution of different value
Q:

Solution methods with quanitative models.

A:
  • simplified models
    • Bsp. restrain system in car
    • simplify by focusing on most relevant effects
    • reverse abstraction
    • possibly along ADG
  • solution spaces
    • Bsp. front crahs vehicle design
    • use a physical surrogate model (Ersatzmodell)
    • compute solution spaces here for force-deformation characteristics
  • Experience-based Iteration
    • Bsp. Front crahs vehicle design, component design
    • trial and error solution generation to sub-problems
    • supported by engineering judgement
    • if requirements not independet, risk of iteration on system level
  • Numerical Optimization
    • Bsp. Front Crash vehicle design, component design
    • Input: iojective function and constraint functions (optimization problem min f subject to g)
    • Output: optimal design
  • Product Family Design
    • Bsp. Vehicle Chassis Design
    • common components can be identified by properies in overlapping solution spaces
  • Top-down vs Bottom-up Development
    • Top-down: design by reverse abstaction
    • buttom-up: evaluation
    • combination possible (good design with proven ability to build it)
Q:

What is a quantitative model?

A:

Quantitative models are compact representations where a (single) (differential or difference) equation may describe the performance of the system for a large set of input functions and initial states

Q:

Define Product Family.

A:

Collection of products and components that may be shared

Q:

What are decisions driven by? Why use methods? How do you pick a method?

A:

Driven by

  • expreience
  • intuition
  • feeling
    > subjective process

use methodes to

  • rationalize and organize ingredients of decision process
  • making reasons or preferences transparent to others

choosing methods depends on

  • depth of analysis needed
  • available informatio and knowledge
  • effort willing to spend
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