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Ethics

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 principles of conduct governing an individual or group (study of morality)

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Morality

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Morality = Consists of rules of human behavior and specifies that certain
actions are wrong / immoral and that others are right / moral
 Moral Standards = Norms about the kinds of actions that are morally
right and wrong, as well as the values placed on what is morally good or
bad (i.e. welfare, duty, rights, fairness, honesty, dignity, and integrity).
 Non-Moral Standards: The standards by which we judge what is good or
bad and right or wrong in a non-moral way.
 Examples: standards of etiquette, law, aesthetics

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Subjective and Objective Morality

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There are no ethical standards that are absolutely true and that apply or
should be applied to the companies and people of all societies.
• When two people or cultures hold different moral views of an action, both
can be right.
• An action may be right for one person or society, and the same action, taken
in the same way, may be wrong for another person or society.

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Exercise: Moral Relativism

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What would an ethical relativist advise the manager of
a multinational corporation who works in a society
whose moral standards are different from her/his own?

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Subjective and Objective Morality

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• Eternal moral values and principles that are always applicable in all
situations.
• Some moral standards are found in all societies
• Relativism with incoherent consequences
• Moral differences do not logically imply relativism

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A person starts to do ethics when he / she takes the moral standards
absorbed from family, church, friends and asks:

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• What do these standards imply for the situations in which I find myself?
• Do these standards really make sense?
• What are the reasons for or against these standards? Why should I continue
to believe in them?
• What can be said in their favor and what can be said against them?
• Are they really reasonable for me to hold? Are their implications in this or
that particular situation reasonable?

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What is the aim of business ethics?

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Not defense of the status quo; nor its radical change.
• Rather, it should
 serve to remedy those aspects or structures needing change
 protect those that are moral

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What is the distinction between ethics and morality? Discuss the different meanings of
the word "ethics," and come up with examples that elucidate the distinctions btw. these
definitions.

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The word "moral" is derived from the Latin "mos" and means translated as "custom" or "regulation". This means that a moral provides people with a concrete framework for appropriate behavior. An example of this are the Ten Commandments like "Thou shalt not kill. However, a moral concept in itself does not necessarily mean that people also follow it.


The word "ethics," on the other hand, is derived from the Greek "ethos" and means character. In contrast to morality, ethics is not about a code of conduct per se but about the analysis of different moral concepts. It is the science of morality and deals with questions like "Is stealing always wrong?" or "When is lying acceptable?

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2. What are the six characteristics that distinguish moral standards? Why is each of them
necessary to define moral standards in general?

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Harm, Authority, Priority, Impartiality, Emotions Universality

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4. How do moral obligations apply to business organizations? Can companies be held
accountable for what they do, or are the individuals who make up the company the
ones we must hold accountable?

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I believe yes. Large companies are powerful players on the market and in politics.

Companies are fundamentally responsible actors

Companies can take a moral stand. For example only with the status quo envrioment protection is only possible with companies that act morally


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6. What is wrong with the thought that abiding by the law is all the ethics that a
businessperson needs to worry about?

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Law dont automaticly imply moral right action. For example

Not all laws are morally defensible (ex. laws requiring racial segregation
and discrimination).
• Not all immoral behavior can be made illegal (ex. Although, it is immoral to
lie, this does not mean that all lying should be made illegal)
• Behaviors that are not, in themselves, unethical can become unethical
because of laws that are passed (ex. the obligation to pay one’s income
tax).

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Which of Kohlberg’s six stages of moral development would you say that Aleksander Kogan
had reached? Explain
Kogan-researcher from Cambridge “We were assured by Cambridge Analytica that
everything was perfectly legal and within the limits of term of service”

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I would say that he is at level 4. He has assured himself - if his statement can be trusted - that everything is in order and that he is on the safe side.

But you can also argue for the first level. He was afraid of punishment, so he made sure that everything was going to be all right.

With a little bit of imagination I think he could also be on the 3rd level. As a new employee he wanted to get on well with his new colleagues, impress them, be helpful and thus fulfill the expectations of him to the fullest extent.

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Q:

Ethics

A:

 principles of conduct governing an individual or group (study of morality)

Q:

Morality

A:

Morality = Consists of rules of human behavior and specifies that certain
actions are wrong / immoral and that others are right / moral
 Moral Standards = Norms about the kinds of actions that are morally
right and wrong, as well as the values placed on what is morally good or
bad (i.e. welfare, duty, rights, fairness, honesty, dignity, and integrity).
 Non-Moral Standards: The standards by which we judge what is good or
bad and right or wrong in a non-moral way.
 Examples: standards of etiquette, law, aesthetics

Q:

Subjective and Objective Morality

A:

There are no ethical standards that are absolutely true and that apply or
should be applied to the companies and people of all societies.
• When two people or cultures hold different moral views of an action, both
can be right.
• An action may be right for one person or society, and the same action, taken
in the same way, may be wrong for another person or society.

Q:

Exercise: Moral Relativism

A:

What would an ethical relativist advise the manager of
a multinational corporation who works in a society
whose moral standards are different from her/his own?

Q:

Subjective and Objective Morality

A:

• Eternal moral values and principles that are always applicable in all
situations.
• Some moral standards are found in all societies
• Relativism with incoherent consequences
• Moral differences do not logically imply relativism

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

A person starts to do ethics when he / she takes the moral standards
absorbed from family, church, friends and asks:

A:

• What do these standards imply for the situations in which I find myself?
• Do these standards really make sense?
• What are the reasons for or against these standards? Why should I continue
to believe in them?
• What can be said in their favor and what can be said against them?
• Are they really reasonable for me to hold? Are their implications in this or
that particular situation reasonable?

Q:

What is the aim of business ethics?

A:

Not defense of the status quo; nor its radical change.
• Rather, it should
 serve to remedy those aspects or structures needing change
 protect those that are moral

Q:

What is the distinction between ethics and morality? Discuss the different meanings of
the word "ethics," and come up with examples that elucidate the distinctions btw. these
definitions.

A:

The word "moral" is derived from the Latin "mos" and means translated as "custom" or "regulation". This means that a moral provides people with a concrete framework for appropriate behavior. An example of this are the Ten Commandments like "Thou shalt not kill. However, a moral concept in itself does not necessarily mean that people also follow it.


The word "ethics," on the other hand, is derived from the Greek "ethos" and means character. In contrast to morality, ethics is not about a code of conduct per se but about the analysis of different moral concepts. It is the science of morality and deals with questions like "Is stealing always wrong?" or "When is lying acceptable?

Q:

2. What are the six characteristics that distinguish moral standards? Why is each of them
necessary to define moral standards in general?

A:

Harm, Authority, Priority, Impartiality, Emotions Universality

Q:

4. How do moral obligations apply to business organizations? Can companies be held
accountable for what they do, or are the individuals who make up the company the
ones we must hold accountable?

A:

I believe yes. Large companies are powerful players on the market and in politics.

Companies are fundamentally responsible actors

Companies can take a moral stand. For example only with the status quo envrioment protection is only possible with companies that act morally


Q:

6. What is wrong with the thought that abiding by the law is all the ethics that a
businessperson needs to worry about?

A:

Law dont automaticly imply moral right action. For example

Not all laws are morally defensible (ex. laws requiring racial segregation
and discrimination).
• Not all immoral behavior can be made illegal (ex. Although, it is immoral to
lie, this does not mean that all lying should be made illegal)
• Behaviors that are not, in themselves, unethical can become unethical
because of laws that are passed (ex. the obligation to pay one’s income
tax).

Q:

Which of Kohlberg’s six stages of moral development would you say that Aleksander Kogan
had reached? Explain
Kogan-researcher from Cambridge “We were assured by Cambridge Analytica that
everything was perfectly legal and within the limits of term of service”

A:

I would say that he is at level 4. He has assured himself - if his statement can be trusted - that everything is in order and that he is on the safe side.

But you can also argue for the first level. He was afraid of punishment, so he made sure that everything was going to be all right.

With a little bit of imagination I think he could also be on the 3rd level. As a new employee he wanted to get on well with his new colleagues, impress them, be helpful and thus fulfill the expectations of him to the fullest extent.

GR

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