Rehabilitation Engineering an der ETHZ - ETH Zurich | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Rehabilitation Engineering an der ETHZ - ETH Zurich

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I want to control the positions of the joints of a patient during rehabilitation. What robot architecture should I use?

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exoskeleton

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Pros and cons of ElectroEncephalography (EEG) in the brain

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Electrical activity produced by big pool of neurons


+ Good for identifying sleep phases

+ Ideal for locked-in patients (motor-imagery)

+ Recorded on the surface of the scalp (non-invasive)


- long preparation times

- very low spatial resolution (cross-talk)

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Prevalence?

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Prevalence is the total number of cases of a disease in a population at a given time (sometimes divided by the number of individuals in that population).

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Incidence?

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Incidence is the number of new cases per population (e.g. 10000) in a given time period (e.g. 1 year). Thus, it is the risk of developing some new condition within a specified time.

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Paresis

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Weakness of voluntary movement, or partial loss of voluntary movement, impaired movement. 

Usually referring to limbs, but also used to describe the muscles of the eyes (ophthalmoparesis), the stomach (gastroparesis), etc.

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Spasticity


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A state of increased muscle tone, also referred to as unusual "tightness' of muscles. (hypertonia)

Increased, velocity-dependent resistance to passive stretch.

Spasticity can also appear as shaking, e.g. triggered by touch.

It mostly occurs in disorders of the CNS impacting the upper motor neuron in the form of a lesion, such as MS, CP or after a stroke.

Can be measured by the "(Modified) Ashworth Test"

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Is an e-bike a training or assistive device? Why?

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Both, depends on how you use it.

Training = therapeutic effect --> is possible with the e-bike

Assistive device = allows you to improve performance capabilities --> done by the e-bike

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3-Point Pressure Model

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Most orthoses use this principle to control the
angular movement of a joint.

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Soft exoskeleton definition

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“Characteristic of soft robotic suits is that they rely on the structural integrity of the human body to
transfer reaction forces between body segments, rather than having their own load-bearing
frame. They thus act like an external layer of muscles rather than an external skeleton.”

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Limitation of not grounded robots

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- integrity of the structure might not be sufficient. Especially arthritis and osteoporosis cause limitations.

- completely paralyzed people cannot use them eighter, because soft exos do not provide the amount of stability needed for someone completely paralyzed

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Main Causes of Amputations

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Vascular diseases 75-80%
(50-60% due to diabetis mellitus)
• Trauma 10-15%
• Miscellaneous, e.g. malignant tumors 5%
• Infection/Sepsis 1-3%
• Congenital malformation 0.5%

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I want to capture the intention of the user of prosthetic limb, in diverse conditions. What sensor should I use? Why?

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EMG because captures what brain wants to do

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Q:

I want to control the positions of the joints of a patient during rehabilitation. What robot architecture should I use?

A:

exoskeleton

Q:

Pros and cons of ElectroEncephalography (EEG) in the brain

A:

Electrical activity produced by big pool of neurons


+ Good for identifying sleep phases

+ Ideal for locked-in patients (motor-imagery)

+ Recorded on the surface of the scalp (non-invasive)


- long preparation times

- very low spatial resolution (cross-talk)

Q:

Prevalence?

A:

Prevalence is the total number of cases of a disease in a population at a given time (sometimes divided by the number of individuals in that population).

Q:

Incidence?

A:

Incidence is the number of new cases per population (e.g. 10000) in a given time period (e.g. 1 year). Thus, it is the risk of developing some new condition within a specified time.

Q:

Paresis

A:

Weakness of voluntary movement, or partial loss of voluntary movement, impaired movement. 

Usually referring to limbs, but also used to describe the muscles of the eyes (ophthalmoparesis), the stomach (gastroparesis), etc.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Spasticity


A:

A state of increased muscle tone, also referred to as unusual "tightness' of muscles. (hypertonia)

Increased, velocity-dependent resistance to passive stretch.

Spasticity can also appear as shaking, e.g. triggered by touch.

It mostly occurs in disorders of the CNS impacting the upper motor neuron in the form of a lesion, such as MS, CP or after a stroke.

Can be measured by the "(Modified) Ashworth Test"

Q:

Is an e-bike a training or assistive device? Why?

A:

Both, depends on how you use it.

Training = therapeutic effect --> is possible with the e-bike

Assistive device = allows you to improve performance capabilities --> done by the e-bike

Q:

3-Point Pressure Model

A:

Most orthoses use this principle to control the
angular movement of a joint.

Q:

Soft exoskeleton definition

A:

“Characteristic of soft robotic suits is that they rely on the structural integrity of the human body to
transfer reaction forces between body segments, rather than having their own load-bearing
frame. They thus act like an external layer of muscles rather than an external skeleton.”

Q:

Limitation of not grounded robots

A:

- integrity of the structure might not be sufficient. Especially arthritis and osteoporosis cause limitations.

- completely paralyzed people cannot use them eighter, because soft exos do not provide the amount of stability needed for someone completely paralyzed

Q:

Main Causes of Amputations

A:

Vascular diseases 75-80%
(50-60% due to diabetis mellitus)
• Trauma 10-15%
• Miscellaneous, e.g. malignant tumors 5%
• Infection/Sepsis 1-3%
• Congenital malformation 0.5%

Q:

I want to capture the intention of the user of prosthetic limb, in diverse conditions. What sensor should I use? Why?

A:

EMG because captures what brain wants to do

Rehabilitation Engineering

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