Dietary Etiologies an der ETHZ - ETH Zurich | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name some micronutrients that interplay with each other.

(3)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

  • Iodine - Iron
  • Iron - Lead
  • Vit. A - Iodine
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Say some general characteristics about I-deficiency

(6)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Most common cause of preventable mental retardation
  • If not daily uptake -> goiter (larger thyroid gland) & hypothyroidism -> lower IQ
  • ~120'000 babies born deficient every year
  • most affected newborns are in: South Asia >> Sub-Saharan Africa > East Asia/Pacific
  • I: trace element in soil -> uptake through roots -> I in crops for humans, BUT: too little I in many soils
  • I needed for thyroid-hormone production (T4)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Although Iodized Salt is the most effective, inexpensive way of distributing I worldwide - I-deficiency (ID) persistent. Why?

(2)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

  • Vitamin A deficiency
  • Fe deficiency
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How does Fe deficiency interact with ID?

(5)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
--> Fe deficiency (anemia!) impairs thyroid metabolism
  • less T4 & T3, more TSH -> hypothyroidism
  • less hepatic 5'-deiodinase
  • less peripheral conversion of T4 -> T3
  • lower TSH response to TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone)
  • less nuclear T3 binding
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Which is the molecular mechanism that links ID and Fe-deficiency together?

("5")
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Fe-def. --> lower Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) activity in thyrocyte cell cultures (~> production of T3 & T4 (thyroid hormone) after activation by Iodine) --> impaired thyroid metabolism
  • requires a heme prosthetic group (likely from Fe)
1. Heme biosynthesis
2. Heme-insertion into TPO during ER processing -> targeting to alical pole
3. Further covalent heme binding to TPO (at aoical pole - H2O2 dependent)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How can ID in Africa be effectively combatted?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

  • I supplementation coupled with Fe (through salt)
-> Dual Fortification of Salt with I & Fe effective, but difficult due to color changes (except micronized ferric pyrophosphate FePP - white)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name some issues with lead (Pb) in developing countries.

(5)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

  • Lead poisoning common in children from lower socoieconomic status (SES)
--> more hand-to-mouth activity, increased Pb absorption 
  • 20 - 78% of children: elevated Blood-lead-levels (BLL) in cities of China, South Asia, Africa
--> increased by urbanization, leaded fuels, industrial pollution
  • Pb poisoning & Fe-def. may permanently impair neurocognitive development in children (by causing brain damage)


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is an effective measure to reduce blood Pb levels in children in India?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Food fortification with Fe & EDTA (Ferric Sodium EDTA - NaFeEDTA)

EDTA: chelates Fe & Pb
--> one of the most common food fortificants for Fe
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name some characteristics of Vit. A deficiency.

(4)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

  • Vit A: essential for eye function & immune system
  • Vit A-def. affects >100 Mio. children --> blindness, deaths in 1/4 children
  • Vit A- & I-def. often coexist in children of developing countries (32 - 57% in rural areas of West & North Africa)
--> also impairs thyroid metabolism (like Fe & Se deficiencies)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How should I-def. be treated in developing countries?

("3")
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Vit A + iodized salt (possibly also + Fe)
--> reduce TSH-beta expression & TSH hyperstimulation (also reduction in thyroid size & goiter - no hypothyroidism either as long ad with I supplements?)
+ enhancement of response to I

- mediated through pituitary retinoid receptor & TSH-beta gene expression

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the future outlook regarding micronutrient deficiencies?

(4)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

  • Global iodized salt initiative very effective, but...
  • 1/3 of children worldwide (>250 Mio) remain I-def
--> additional strategies (combined approaches) to correct other micronutrient deficiencies required! (Vit A, Fe)

-> micronutrient interactions on molecular level: within pituitary genome (Vit A) & the thyrocyte membrane (Fe) ~> public health of children in developing countries
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What does "hidden hunger" (micronutrient deficiency) lead to?

(3)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Mental Impairment
- Poor Health
- even Death
--> most often children & women in developing countries that suffer most!
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
Name some micronutrients that interplay with each other.

(3)
A:

  • Iodine - Iron
  • Iron - Lead
  • Vit. A - Iodine
Q:
Say some general characteristics about I-deficiency

(6)
A:
  • Most common cause of preventable mental retardation
  • If not daily uptake -> goiter (larger thyroid gland) & hypothyroidism -> lower IQ
  • ~120'000 babies born deficient every year
  • most affected newborns are in: South Asia >> Sub-Saharan Africa > East Asia/Pacific
  • I: trace element in soil -> uptake through roots -> I in crops for humans, BUT: too little I in many soils
  • I needed for thyroid-hormone production (T4)
Q:
Although Iodized Salt is the most effective, inexpensive way of distributing I worldwide - I-deficiency (ID) persistent. Why?

(2)
A:

  • Vitamin A deficiency
  • Fe deficiency
Q:
How does Fe deficiency interact with ID?

(5)
A:
--> Fe deficiency (anemia!) impairs thyroid metabolism
  • less T4 & T3, more TSH -> hypothyroidism
  • less hepatic 5'-deiodinase
  • less peripheral conversion of T4 -> T3
  • lower TSH response to TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone)
  • less nuclear T3 binding
Q:
Which is the molecular mechanism that links ID and Fe-deficiency together?

("5")
A:
Fe-def. --> lower Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) activity in thyrocyte cell cultures (~> production of T3 & T4 (thyroid hormone) after activation by Iodine) --> impaired thyroid metabolism
  • requires a heme prosthetic group (likely from Fe)
1. Heme biosynthesis
2. Heme-insertion into TPO during ER processing -> targeting to alical pole
3. Further covalent heme binding to TPO (at aoical pole - H2O2 dependent)
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
How can ID in Africa be effectively combatted?
A:

  • I supplementation coupled with Fe (through salt)
-> Dual Fortification of Salt with I & Fe effective, but difficult due to color changes (except micronized ferric pyrophosphate FePP - white)
Q:
Name some issues with lead (Pb) in developing countries.

(5)
A:

  • Lead poisoning common in children from lower socoieconomic status (SES)
--> more hand-to-mouth activity, increased Pb absorption 
  • 20 - 78% of children: elevated Blood-lead-levels (BLL) in cities of China, South Asia, Africa
--> increased by urbanization, leaded fuels, industrial pollution
  • Pb poisoning & Fe-def. may permanently impair neurocognitive development in children (by causing brain damage)


Q:
What is an effective measure to reduce blood Pb levels in children in India?
A:
  • Food fortification with Fe & EDTA (Ferric Sodium EDTA - NaFeEDTA)

EDTA: chelates Fe & Pb
--> one of the most common food fortificants for Fe
Q:
Name some characteristics of Vit. A deficiency.

(4)
A:

  • Vit A: essential for eye function & immune system
  • Vit A-def. affects >100 Mio. children --> blindness, deaths in 1/4 children
  • Vit A- & I-def. often coexist in children of developing countries (32 - 57% in rural areas of West & North Africa)
--> also impairs thyroid metabolism (like Fe & Se deficiencies)
Q:
How should I-def. be treated in developing countries?

("3")
A:
  • Vit A + iodized salt (possibly also + Fe)
--> reduce TSH-beta expression & TSH hyperstimulation (also reduction in thyroid size & goiter - no hypothyroidism either as long ad with I supplements?)
+ enhancement of response to I

- mediated through pituitary retinoid receptor & TSH-beta gene expression

Q:
What is the future outlook regarding micronutrient deficiencies?

(4)
A:

  • Global iodized salt initiative very effective, but...
  • 1/3 of children worldwide (>250 Mio) remain I-def
--> additional strategies (combined approaches) to correct other micronutrient deficiencies required! (Vit A, Fe)

-> micronutrient interactions on molecular level: within pituitary genome (Vit A) & the thyrocyte membrane (Fe) ~> public health of children in developing countries
Q:
What does "hidden hunger" (micronutrient deficiency) lead to?

(3)
A:
- Mental Impairment
- Poor Health
- even Death
--> most often children & women in developing countries that suffer most!
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