Aircraft Emissions And Climate an der Delft University Of Technology | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Aircraft Emissions and Climate an der Delft University of Technology

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Contrail depth and ice crystal loss dependant on:

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Relative humidity RH_i

Temperature T

Thermal stratification N_BV

Initial ice crystal size distribution

Number of ice crystals

Vertical wind shear

Ambient turbulence intensity

Aircraft type: Γ0, b0,

water vapor emission,

EI_soot

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Impact of particle emissions (soot) on number of contrail ice particles

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Reduction in soot number emission index, EIsoot  reduction in initial ice particle number concentration, nice  For clean exhaust: number of ambient particles control the ice crystal number density

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Average contrail/contrail cirrus properties (only those observed from space):

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Width of 8 km - Length of 130 km. - Top altitude 11.7 km.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Parameters that determine the radiation effects

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• Dependent on optical thickness in the short wave (scattering of sunlight) 

• Water content (infrared absorprion) 

• Habit (right) influence the scattering of sunlight 

• Ice particle number: 

• Many small ice particles: low water vapour, but large optical thickness at SW

 • Solar zenith angle 

• Clouds 

• Surface albedo

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Contrail-cirrus from space: Observation and Reality Difficulties in detecting contrails from space:

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1) Young contrails are optical thin: No detection by satellite 2) Aged contrails may be detected, but hidden by other cloudes

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How are species from aviation transported?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• Change in atmospheric composition due to aviation emissions resembles the general circulation • Maximum change at mid-latitude to polar flight levels (roughly) • predominant downward transport • limited inter-hemispheric exchange

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What criteria have to be fulfilled for a formation of a persistent contrail? (Multiple choice)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The aircraft has to emit particles, like soot, since the droplet formation requires a condensation nuclei.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Ferrell cell as an indirect cell

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Ferrell cell = statistical phenomenon, only.

provides poleward heat transport

Hadley cell = direct cell

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Contrail Lifetimes

Mark the correct answers

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The more soot particle are emitted the more droplets and then ice particles form in a contrail


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Geopotential height

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

is a vertical coordinate referenced to Earth's mean sea level. It is an adjustment to geometric height (elevation above mean sea level) using the variation of gravity with latitude (j) and elevation (h).

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The SAC is describing the slope of the mixing line between exhaust conditions and environmental conditions and is (except for constants)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

depending on atmospheric conditions, only.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

120% relative humidity over ice (Multiple choice)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

is not possible (too large)

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Q:

Contrail depth and ice crystal loss dependant on:

A:

Relative humidity RH_i

Temperature T

Thermal stratification N_BV

Initial ice crystal size distribution

Number of ice crystals

Vertical wind shear

Ambient turbulence intensity

Aircraft type: Γ0, b0,

water vapor emission,

EI_soot

Q:

Impact of particle emissions (soot) on number of contrail ice particles

A:

Reduction in soot number emission index, EIsoot  reduction in initial ice particle number concentration, nice  For clean exhaust: number of ambient particles control the ice crystal number density

Q:

Average contrail/contrail cirrus properties (only those observed from space):

A:

- Width of 8 km - Length of 130 km. - Top altitude 11.7 km.

Q:

Parameters that determine the radiation effects

A:

• Dependent on optical thickness in the short wave (scattering of sunlight) 

• Water content (infrared absorprion) 

• Habit (right) influence the scattering of sunlight 

• Ice particle number: 

• Many small ice particles: low water vapour, but large optical thickness at SW

 • Solar zenith angle 

• Clouds 

• Surface albedo

Q:

Contrail-cirrus from space: Observation and Reality Difficulties in detecting contrails from space:

A:

1) Young contrails are optical thin: No detection by satellite 2) Aged contrails may be detected, but hidden by other cloudes

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

How are species from aviation transported?

A:

• Change in atmospheric composition due to aviation emissions resembles the general circulation • Maximum change at mid-latitude to polar flight levels (roughly) • predominant downward transport • limited inter-hemispheric exchange

Q:

What criteria have to be fulfilled for a formation of a persistent contrail? (Multiple choice)

A:

The aircraft has to emit particles, like soot, since the droplet formation requires a condensation nuclei.


Q:

Ferrell cell as an indirect cell

A:

Ferrell cell = statistical phenomenon, only.

provides poleward heat transport

Hadley cell = direct cell

Q:

Contrail Lifetimes

Mark the correct answers

A:

The more soot particle are emitted the more droplets and then ice particles form in a contrail


Q:

Geopotential height

A:

is a vertical coordinate referenced to Earth's mean sea level. It is an adjustment to geometric height (elevation above mean sea level) using the variation of gravity with latitude (j) and elevation (h).

Q:

The SAC is describing the slope of the mixing line between exhaust conditions and environmental conditions and is (except for constants)

A:

depending on atmospheric conditions, only.


Q:

120% relative humidity over ice (Multiple choice)

A:

is not possible (too large)

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