Tissues an der De La Salle University | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

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Tissue membrane that lines the cavities of freely movable joints.

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Synovial membranes

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Consists of a single layer of cells, with each cell extending from the basement membrane to the free surface.

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Simple epithelium

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True or False:

Included under the classification of epithelial tissue are the exocrine and endocrine glands.

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True

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This type of tissue covers and protects surfaces, both outside and inside the body 


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Epithelial tissue

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 A group of cells with similar structure and function, plus the extracellular substance
surrounding them

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Tissue

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True or False:

Epithelial tissue is non-vascular

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True

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True or False:

Changes in tissues can result in development, growth, aging, trauma, or disease

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True

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What are the functions of Epithelial tissues?

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  1. Protection
  2. Barrier
  3. Permits passage of substances
  4. Secretion
  5. Absorption
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True or False:

Epithelial tissues are classified primarily according to the number of cell layers and the shape of the superficial cells

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True

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What are the three types of epithelial tissues based on cell layers?

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Simple, Stratified, Pseudostratified

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True or False:

Epithelial cells are composed mostly of cells with a great amount of extracellular matrix between them

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False

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Study of tissues

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Histology

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Q:

Tissue membrane that lines the cavities of freely movable joints.

A:

Synovial membranes

Q:


Consists of a single layer of cells, with each cell extending from the basement membrane to the free surface.

A:

Simple epithelium

Q:

True or False:

Included under the classification of epithelial tissue are the exocrine and endocrine glands.

A:

True

Q:

This type of tissue covers and protects surfaces, both outside and inside the body 


A:

Epithelial tissue

Q:

 A group of cells with similar structure and function, plus the extracellular substance
surrounding them

A:

Tissue

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Q:

True or False:

Epithelial tissue is non-vascular

A:

True

Q:

True or False:

Changes in tissues can result in development, growth, aging, trauma, or disease

A:

True

Q:

What are the functions of Epithelial tissues?

A:
  1. Protection
  2. Barrier
  3. Permits passage of substances
  4. Secretion
  5. Absorption
Q:

True or False:

Epithelial tissues are classified primarily according to the number of cell layers and the shape of the superficial cells

A:

True

Q:

What are the three types of epithelial tissues based on cell layers?

A:

Simple, Stratified, Pseudostratified

Q:

True or False:

Epithelial cells are composed mostly of cells with a great amount of extracellular matrix between them

A:

False

Q:

Study of tissues

A:

Histology

Tissues

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Eine der Tissues Zusammenfassungen auf StudySmarter | De La Salle University

SUMMARY

Tissues and Histology

  1. A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function, along with the extracellular substances located between the cells.
  2. Histology is the study of tissues.

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial tissue covers surfaces; it usually has a base membrane, little extracellular material, and no blood vessels.

Functions of Epithelia

General functions of epithelia include protecting underlying structures, acting as a barrier, permitting the passage of substances, secreting substances, and absorbing substances.

Classification of Epithelia

  1. Epithelia are classified according to the number of cell layers and the shape of the cells.
  2. Simple epithelium has one layer of cells, whereas stratified epithelium has more than one.
  3. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium is simple epithelium that appears to have two or more cell layers.
  4. Transitional epithelium is stratified epithelium that can be greatly stretched.

Structural and Functional Relationships

  1. Simple epithelium is involved with diffusion, secretion, or absorption. Stratified epithelium serves a protective role. Squamous cells function in diffusion or filtration. Cuboidal or columnar cells, which contain more organelles, secrete or absorb.
  2. A smooth, free surface reduces friction. Microvilli increase surface area, and cilia move materials over the cell surface.
  3. Tight junctions bind adjacent cells together and form a permeability barrier.
  4. Desmosomes mechanically bind cells together, and hemidesmosomes mechanically bind cells to the basement membrane.
  5. Gap junctions allow intercellular communication.

Glands

  1. A gland is a single cell or a multicellular structure that secretes.
  2. Exocrine glands have ducts, and endocrine glands do not.

Connective Tissue

Connective tissue is distinguished by its extracellular matrix.

Functions of Connective Tissue

Connective tissues enclose and separate organs and tissues; connect tissues to one another; help support and move body parts; store compounds; cushion and insulate the body; transport substances; and protect against toxins and injury.

Cells of Connective Tissue

  1. The extracellular matrix results from the activity of specialized connective tissue cells; In general, -blast cells form the matrix, -cyte cells maintain it, and -clast cells break it down. Fibroblasts form protein fibers of many connective tissues, osteoblasts form bone, and chondroblasts form cartilage.
  2. Connective tissue commonly contains adipocytes, mast cells, white blood cells, macrophages, and mesenchymal cells (stem cells).

Extracellular Matrix

  1. The major components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue are protein fibers, ground substance, and fluid.
  2. Protein fibers of the matrix have the following characteristics:
    • Collagen fibrils are joined to form collagen fibers. The collagen fibers resemble ropes. They are strong and flexible but resist stretching.
    • Reticular fibers are fine collagen fibers that form a branching network that supports other cells and tissues.
    • Elastic fibers have a structure similar to that of a spring. After being stretched, they tend to return to their original shape.
  3. Ground substance has the following major components:
    • Hyaluronic acid makes fluids slippery.
    • Proteoglycan aggregates trap water, which gives tissues the capacity to return to their original shape when compressed or deformed.
    • Adhesive molecules hold proteoglycans together and to plasma membranes.

Classification of Connective Tissue

  1. Areolar connective tissue is the "packing material" of the body; it fills the spaces between organs and holds them in place.
  2. Adipose tissue, or fat, stores energy. Adipose tissue also pads and protects parts of the body and acts as a thermal insulator.
  3. Dense connective tissue has a matrix consisting of either densely packed collagen fibers (in tendons, ligaments, and the dermis of the skin) or densely packed elastic fibers (in elastic ligaments and the walls of arteries).
  4. Reticular tissue forms a framework for lymphatic structures.
  5. Cartilage provides support and is found in structures such as the disks between the vertebrae, the external ear, and the costal cartilages.
  6. Bone has a mineralized matrix and forms most of the skeleton of the body.
  7. Blood has a liquid matrix and is found in blood vessels.

Muscle Tissue

  1. Muscle tissue is specialized to shorten, or contract.
  2. The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle.

Nervous tissue

  1. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct action potentials (electrical signals).
  2. Neurons conduct action potentials, and glia support the neurons.

Tissue Membranes

Mucous Membranes

Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the outside of the body (digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts). They contain glands and secrete mucus.

Serous membranes

Serous membranes line trunk cavities that do not open to the outside of the body (pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities). They do not contain mucous glands but do secrete serous fluid.

Synovial Membranes

Synovial membranes line joint cavities and secrete a lubricating fluid.

Tissue Damage and Inflammation

  1. Inflammation isolates and destroys harmful agents.
  2. Inflammation produces redness, heat, swelling, pain, and disturbance of function.

Chronic inflammation

Chronic inflammation results when the agent causing injury is not removed or something else interferes with the healing process.

Tissue Repair

  1. Tissue repair is the substitution of viable cells for dead cells by regeneration or fibrosis. In regeneration, stem cells, which can divide throughout life, and other dividing cells regenerate new cells of the same type as those that were destroyed. In fibrosis, the destroyed cells are replaced by different cell types, which causes scar formation.
  2. Tissue repair involves clot formation, inflammation, the formation of granulation tissue, and the regeneration or fibrosis of tissues. In severe wounds, wound contracture can occur.

Effects of Aging on Tissues

  1. Cells divide more slowly as people age. Injuries heal more slowly.
  2. Extracellular matrix containing collagen and elastic fibers becomes less flexible and less elastic. Consequently, skin wrinkles, elasticity in arteries is reduced, and bones break more easily.
Tissues

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