Learning And Behavior an der Bergische Universität Wuppertal | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Learning and Behavior an der Bergische Universität Wuppertal

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What is a conditioned response?

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The trained response to a conditioned stimulus (CS) in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus (US) that it predicts

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Schedules of reinforcement?

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  1. partial reinforcement schedules (outcome follows a response less then 100 percent of the time)
    1. fixed ratio
    2. variable ratio
    3. fixed interval
    4. variable interval
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What is a conditioned compensatory response?

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Dogs were injected with adrenalin (US) --> heart rate increased (UR) --> repeating the procedure --> CR = decrease of heart rate due to the bodies compensatory system to maintain equlibrium


--> when the dogs anticipated the increased heart rate after the injection (this time a neutral substance) the CR decreased the heart rate due to anticipation


this happens in biological systems that maintain homeostasis

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What is the direct matching hypothesis?

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Direct-matching hypothesis proposes that memories for actions are stored in specialized cortical regions that map observed actions onto the motor representations of the acts

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Tolerance

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A decrease in reaction to a drug so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect

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extinction

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the process of reducing a learned response to a stimulus by ceasing to pair that stimulus with a reward or punishment

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What is observational learning?

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A process in which the learner actively monitors events and then chooses later actions based on those observations.

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What are the four basic processes that explain people copying what they see?

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  • presence of a model
  • memories must be stored in accessible format
  • ability to reproduce the action
  • motivation for reproducing the observed action
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How can you detect true immitation?

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two-action test


a technique developed to investigate imitation abilities that involves exposing naive animals to demonstrators trained to achieve the same goal using different actions.

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What is vocal imitation?

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Copying that involves reproducing sounds.

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Three phenomena that closely resemble imitation

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  1. emotional contagion (=inborn tendency to react emotionally to sights or sounds of emotion in other members of one's species)
  2. observational conditioning
  3. stimulus enhancement
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Emotional contagion?

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An inborn tendency to react emotionally to visual or acoustic stimuli that indicate an emotional response by other members of one's species, typically in ways that replicate the observed response.

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  • 194398 Karteikarten
  • 2021 Studierende
  • 114 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Learning and Behavior Kurs an der Bergische Universität Wuppertal - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What is a conditioned response?

A:

The trained response to a conditioned stimulus (CS) in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus (US) that it predicts

Q:

Schedules of reinforcement?

A:
  1. partial reinforcement schedules (outcome follows a response less then 100 percent of the time)
    1. fixed ratio
    2. variable ratio
    3. fixed interval
    4. variable interval
Q:

What is a conditioned compensatory response?

A:

Dogs were injected with adrenalin (US) --> heart rate increased (UR) --> repeating the procedure --> CR = decrease of heart rate due to the bodies compensatory system to maintain equlibrium


--> when the dogs anticipated the increased heart rate after the injection (this time a neutral substance) the CR decreased the heart rate due to anticipation


this happens in biological systems that maintain homeostasis

Q:

What is the direct matching hypothesis?

A:

Direct-matching hypothesis proposes that memories for actions are stored in specialized cortical regions that map observed actions onto the motor representations of the acts

Q:

Tolerance

A:

A decrease in reaction to a drug so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

extinction

A:

the process of reducing a learned response to a stimulus by ceasing to pair that stimulus with a reward or punishment

Q:

What is observational learning?

A:

A process in which the learner actively monitors events and then chooses later actions based on those observations.

Q:

What are the four basic processes that explain people copying what they see?

A:
  • presence of a model
  • memories must be stored in accessible format
  • ability to reproduce the action
  • motivation for reproducing the observed action
Q:

How can you detect true immitation?

A:

two-action test


a technique developed to investigate imitation abilities that involves exposing naive animals to demonstrators trained to achieve the same goal using different actions.

Q:

What is vocal imitation?

A:

Copying that involves reproducing sounds.

Q:

Three phenomena that closely resemble imitation

A:
  1. emotional contagion (=inborn tendency to react emotionally to sights or sounds of emotion in other members of one's species)
  2. observational conditioning
  3. stimulus enhancement
Q:

Emotional contagion?

A:

An inborn tendency to react emotionally to visual or acoustic stimuli that indicate an emotional response by other members of one's species, typically in ways that replicate the observed response.

Learning and Behavior

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