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Lernmaterialien für Public Law an der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Data Retention Case

Fundamental rights: Why was “data retention” not in line with the Charta of fundamental rights? 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The Austrian VfgH requested a preliminary ruling form the Court of Justice, as it found the rules on data retention by the directive unconstitutional. In particular, it claimed the directive was in contradiction with EU primacy law - EU Charta on Fundamental Rights - in respect to

  • Fundamental Right of Data protection
  • Right to Privacy 
  • Freedom of Expression


The directive did not fulfill the criteria of proportionality and thus there was no need to introduce it into national law.  



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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the main functions of EU law when dealing with the IT sector? 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- ensure the functioning of the internal (single) market

mostly done with directives (to be implemented in a given timeframe) and regulations (directly applicable by MS)


- establish the competition rules necessary for the functioning of the internal (single) market 

prohibit cartels, abuse of dominant market position, merger controls etc.


Therefore, it seeks to harmonize national law on a EU basis

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What does the “primacy of EU law mean”? 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Primary Law (eg from the founding Treaties  and also the Charta of the Fundamental Rights of the EU) .

Secondary Law my not contradict to Primary law. 

Primary law is superior to secondary EU law and national laws

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Is zero-rating allowed under the Net Neutrality Regulation? 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

zero rating: the commercial practice whereby an internet service provider (ISP) doesn’t count the use of an app or service against your monthly data cap


Pro:

  • lower consumer prices
  • expanding internet adoption
  • in countries with low internet penetration rate, it gives access to internet
  • Capturing economic efficiencies for the ISPs


Con;

  • Potential violation of Net Neutrality
  • Usually only larger corporations are able to sustain zero rating deals with ISPs
  • Discriminates other APPs
  • Problematic in developing countries (Zero rating might be only source of information - Freedom of Expression)



 - It depends if it is conform with the Net Neturality Regulation: 

wheter practices circument the general aims of Net Neutrality (Non discriminatory treatment of traffic)


 - depending on market position of ISP/CAP


 - effects on end-user (smaller range of apps to choose from, discouraged from entering the market)


 - scale of pracitce (how many end users are using the offer)



Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Do you think that I need a specific “permission” before I start my activities as an internet access provider?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The authorization of telecommunication law specifies this. For ISPs a general authorization is sufficient. This means a mere notification submitted to the national regulation authority, no further explicit decision by the authority or other administrative acts are required. 

By this general authorization, an ISP has the right to: 

  • operate electronic communications networks and provide electronic communication services.
  • the ISP can apply for rights of way
  • negotiate interconnection with or from other operators
  • it can be given an opportunity to provide elements of a universal service
  • have access to scarce resources.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

I have heard that sometimes a company (usually much bigger than mine) deliver a so-called “Universal Service”. What does this mean? 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Universal service refers to the concept that certain operators (ISPs) need to fulfil general interest demands, such as telecommunications. The aim is to ensure that all users have access to quality services at an affordable price.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the 3 Powers in the State?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  •     Legislative (parlament)
  •     Executive (state admin)
  •     Judiciary (courts)


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Example IT Relevant legislation in Austria?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Telecommunications Act
  • Network and Information Systems Security Act
  • Hate Speech Online Combat Act
  • Communication Platforms Act
  • E-commerce Act
  • Audiovisual Media Act
  • Digital Tax Act 2020


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Example of governmental Executive instrument in Austria?


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  •     Rulings (Authoriasation of installation of a radio equipment)
  •     Regulations (Frequency Usage Regulation)
  •     Acts of immediate administrative instruction and compulsion (Prevent a car from driving away)


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Example of governmental Judiciary instrument in Austria?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  •     Judgments 
  •     Orders


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which questions do they address? 

> Constitutional Court 

> ECtHR 

> European Court of Justice 


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Constitutional Court -> Is it inline with Constitution?

ECtHR -> ECHR (against a member state)

European Court of Justice ->  judicial institution of the European Union.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What rights do data subjects have in the context of the  GDPR?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Right of access 

controller must inform data subject about the:

  • purpose of the processing
  • categories of personal data concerned
  • to whom the data will be disclosed
  • how long the data will be stored
  • right to lodge a complaint


Right to rectification 

The data subject shall have the right to obtain from the controller without undue delay the rectification of personal data concerning him or her which are inaccurate. + the right to obtain completion of incomplete personal data 


Right to erasure (“right to be forgotten") 

data subject has the right to request the erasure of personal data

  • that is no longer necessary for the purpose for which they were collected
  • the data subject withdraws consent on which the processing is based


right shall not apply

  • for exercising the right of freedom of expression and information 
  • for reasons of public interest in the area of public health; for archiving purposes in the public interest, or scientific and historical research purposes 


Right to data portability 

The data subject shall have the right to receive the personal data concerning him or her, which he or she has provided to a controller in an accessable manner


Right to object

Data subject shall have the right to object at any time to the processing of personal data


Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

Data Retention Case

Fundamental rights: Why was “data retention” not in line with the Charta of fundamental rights? 

A:

The Austrian VfgH requested a preliminary ruling form the Court of Justice, as it found the rules on data retention by the directive unconstitutional. In particular, it claimed the directive was in contradiction with EU primacy law - EU Charta on Fundamental Rights - in respect to

  • Fundamental Right of Data protection
  • Right to Privacy 
  • Freedom of Expression


The directive did not fulfill the criteria of proportionality and thus there was no need to introduce it into national law.  



Q:

What are the main functions of EU law when dealing with the IT sector? 

A:

- ensure the functioning of the internal (single) market

mostly done with directives (to be implemented in a given timeframe) and regulations (directly applicable by MS)


- establish the competition rules necessary for the functioning of the internal (single) market 

prohibit cartels, abuse of dominant market position, merger controls etc.


Therefore, it seeks to harmonize national law on a EU basis

Q:

What does the “primacy of EU law mean”? 

A:

Primary Law (eg from the founding Treaties  and also the Charta of the Fundamental Rights of the EU) .

Secondary Law my not contradict to Primary law. 

Primary law is superior to secondary EU law and national laws

Q:

Is zero-rating allowed under the Net Neutrality Regulation? 

A:

zero rating: the commercial practice whereby an internet service provider (ISP) doesn’t count the use of an app or service against your monthly data cap


Pro:

  • lower consumer prices
  • expanding internet adoption
  • in countries with low internet penetration rate, it gives access to internet
  • Capturing economic efficiencies for the ISPs


Con;

  • Potential violation of Net Neutrality
  • Usually only larger corporations are able to sustain zero rating deals with ISPs
  • Discriminates other APPs
  • Problematic in developing countries (Zero rating might be only source of information - Freedom of Expression)



 - It depends if it is conform with the Net Neturality Regulation: 

wheter practices circument the general aims of Net Neutrality (Non discriminatory treatment of traffic)


 - depending on market position of ISP/CAP


 - effects on end-user (smaller range of apps to choose from, discouraged from entering the market)


 - scale of pracitce (how many end users are using the offer)



Q:

Do you think that I need a specific “permission” before I start my activities as an internet access provider?

A:

The authorization of telecommunication law specifies this. For ISPs a general authorization is sufficient. This means a mere notification submitted to the national regulation authority, no further explicit decision by the authority or other administrative acts are required. 

By this general authorization, an ISP has the right to: 

  • operate electronic communications networks and provide electronic communication services.
  • the ISP can apply for rights of way
  • negotiate interconnection with or from other operators
  • it can be given an opportunity to provide elements of a universal service
  • have access to scarce resources.
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

I have heard that sometimes a company (usually much bigger than mine) deliver a so-called “Universal Service”. What does this mean? 

A:

Universal service refers to the concept that certain operators (ISPs) need to fulfil general interest demands, such as telecommunications. The aim is to ensure that all users have access to quality services at an affordable price.

Q:

What are the 3 Powers in the State?


A:
  •     Legislative (parlament)
  •     Executive (state admin)
  •     Judiciary (courts)


Q:

Example IT Relevant legislation in Austria?


A:
  • Telecommunications Act
  • Network and Information Systems Security Act
  • Hate Speech Online Combat Act
  • Communication Platforms Act
  • E-commerce Act
  • Audiovisual Media Act
  • Digital Tax Act 2020


Q:

Example of governmental Executive instrument in Austria?


A:
  •     Rulings (Authoriasation of installation of a radio equipment)
  •     Regulations (Frequency Usage Regulation)
  •     Acts of immediate administrative instruction and compulsion (Prevent a car from driving away)


Q:

Example of governmental Judiciary instrument in Austria?


A:
  •     Judgments 
  •     Orders


Q:

Which questions do they address? 

> Constitutional Court 

> ECtHR 

> European Court of Justice 


A:

Constitutional Court -> Is it inline with Constitution?

ECtHR -> ECHR (against a member state)

European Court of Justice ->  judicial institution of the European Union.

Q:

What rights do data subjects have in the context of the  GDPR?

A:

Right of access 

controller must inform data subject about the:

  • purpose of the processing
  • categories of personal data concerned
  • to whom the data will be disclosed
  • how long the data will be stored
  • right to lodge a complaint


Right to rectification 

The data subject shall have the right to obtain from the controller without undue delay the rectification of personal data concerning him or her which are inaccurate. + the right to obtain completion of incomplete personal data 


Right to erasure (“right to be forgotten") 

data subject has the right to request the erasure of personal data

  • that is no longer necessary for the purpose for which they were collected
  • the data subject withdraws consent on which the processing is based


right shall not apply

  • for exercising the right of freedom of expression and information 
  • for reasons of public interest in the area of public health; for archiving purposes in the public interest, or scientific and historical research purposes 


Right to data portability 

The data subject shall have the right to receive the personal data concerning him or her, which he or she has provided to a controller in an accessable manner


Right to object

Data subject shall have the right to object at any time to the processing of personal data


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