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What is a cost – benefit analysis?


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  • a method used to compare costs and benefits of an intervention where all the
    consequences and benefits are valued in monetary terms.
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What is meant by "Cost – utility analysis"?

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  • is a form of financial analysis used to guide procurement decisions.
  •  It provides a more complete analysis of total benefits than simple cost – benefit analysis, because it takes into account the quality of life that an individual has.
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What is Strategic Environmental Assessment?

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  • SEA is a tool for evaluating the possible impacts of the implementation of the prepared conceptions /policies /programmes on the quality of the environment and also the effects on public health.
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What does the process of assesing the effects of conceptions/policies/ programmes include?

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identification, description and evaluation of the expected direct and indirect effects of implementation and non- implementation of the conception/policy/programme and its objectives, for the entire period of its expected implementation.

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What is the aim  of the SEA process?

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The aim of the process is to mitigate the adverse effects of the strategy contained in the conception/ policy/ programme on the environment and also on public health.

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Frage muss noch gefunden werden!

SEA - Evaluation  - Example

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  • Evaluation of all parts of the conception/policy/programme from the point of view of the environment and public health
  • Evaluation of the objectives of the conception/policy/programme in relation to the objectives of environmental protection
  •  Natura 2000 impact assessment - if required by nature conservation authorities
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are  major environmental problems (6 issues) ?

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  1.  Hazardous Chemicals and Wastes 
  2. Pollution of Air, Water and Land 
  3. Climate Change
  4.  Land Degradation
  5.  Loss of Biodiversity 
  6.  Loss of Cultural and Natural Heritage
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How do you define "ecosystem"?

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the complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their interrelationships in a particular unit of space.

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How do you define Environmental policy (EP)?

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WHAT:

  • any measure by a government or corporation or other public or private organization regarding the effects of human activities on the environment, particularly those measures that are designed to prevent or reduce harmful effects of human activities on ecosystems.

PURPOSE:

  •  provide a framework and guidelines for decision-making and activities at the international, national, regional and local levels aimed at further improvements in the environmental quality as a whole and in the quality of environmental components
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What are the objectives of environmental policy?

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EP focuses on 

  •  enforcement of sustainable development principles
  • continuing integration of the environmental perspective into sectoral policies
  • increasing the economic efficiency and social acceptability of environmental protection programmes, projects and activities.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the development of the Environmental Policy in the EU.

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  •  1957 to 1972
    •  a phase of ‘incidental environmental measures
    • 1972 - European Council (Paris): the EU’s environmental policy has developed into a comprehensive and complex regime. 
  • 1973-1986 
    •  the second ‘responsive‘ phase ’ 
    • three action plans 1973-1976, 1977-1981, 1982-1986, environmentally motivated policies were adopted in all subfields of this area (150 regulations, directives and decisions) 
    • The scope of European environment policy grew but was still rather scattered and dealt only with acute pollution problems, e.g. acidification.
    • International environmental regimes emerged simultaneously with European environmental policy. 
    • July 1972  -  UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) marked the beginning of a period of international cooperation.
  • 1987-2000
    • The third phase  after adoption of the Single European Act (SEA) in 1987 (in the SEA a chapter on environmental policy was added to the Treaty)
    •  EP was developed very speedily; 
    • 96 legal acts were adopted before the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty, 
    •  plus: about 160 acts before the Nice Treaty in 2000 
  • The forth phase – 2000-present ?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is a cost-effective analysis?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Cost – effective analysis

  •  is one of the methods using for balancing costs and benefits.
  •  It is used in setting policies and programs/projects, in their evaluation (ex-ante, mid-term, ex post).
  • not monetary
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Q:

What is a cost – benefit analysis?


A:
  • a method used to compare costs and benefits of an intervention where all the
    consequences and benefits are valued in monetary terms.
Q:

What is meant by "Cost – utility analysis"?

A:
  • is a form of financial analysis used to guide procurement decisions.
  •  It provides a more complete analysis of total benefits than simple cost – benefit analysis, because it takes into account the quality of life that an individual has.
Q:

What is Strategic Environmental Assessment?

A:
  • SEA is a tool for evaluating the possible impacts of the implementation of the prepared conceptions /policies /programmes on the quality of the environment and also the effects on public health.
Q:

What does the process of assesing the effects of conceptions/policies/ programmes include?

A:

identification, description and evaluation of the expected direct and indirect effects of implementation and non- implementation of the conception/policy/programme and its objectives, for the entire period of its expected implementation.

Q:

What is the aim  of the SEA process?

A:

The aim of the process is to mitigate the adverse effects of the strategy contained in the conception/ policy/ programme on the environment and also on public health.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Frage muss noch gefunden werden!

SEA - Evaluation  - Example

A:
  • Evaluation of all parts of the conception/policy/programme from the point of view of the environment and public health
  • Evaluation of the objectives of the conception/policy/programme in relation to the objectives of environmental protection
  •  Natura 2000 impact assessment - if required by nature conservation authorities
Q:

What are  major environmental problems (6 issues) ?

A:
  1.  Hazardous Chemicals and Wastes 
  2. Pollution of Air, Water and Land 
  3. Climate Change
  4.  Land Degradation
  5.  Loss of Biodiversity 
  6.  Loss of Cultural and Natural Heritage
Q:

How do you define "ecosystem"?

A:

the complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their interrelationships in a particular unit of space.

Q:

How do you define Environmental policy (EP)?

A:

WHAT:

  • any measure by a government or corporation or other public or private organization regarding the effects of human activities on the environment, particularly those measures that are designed to prevent or reduce harmful effects of human activities on ecosystems.

PURPOSE:

  •  provide a framework and guidelines for decision-making and activities at the international, national, regional and local levels aimed at further improvements in the environmental quality as a whole and in the quality of environmental components
Q:

What are the objectives of environmental policy?

A:

EP focuses on 

  •  enforcement of sustainable development principles
  • continuing integration of the environmental perspective into sectoral policies
  • increasing the economic efficiency and social acceptability of environmental protection programmes, projects and activities.
Q:

Describe the development of the Environmental Policy in the EU.

A:
  •  1957 to 1972
    •  a phase of ‘incidental environmental measures
    • 1972 - European Council (Paris): the EU’s environmental policy has developed into a comprehensive and complex regime. 
  • 1973-1986 
    •  the second ‘responsive‘ phase ’ 
    • three action plans 1973-1976, 1977-1981, 1982-1986, environmentally motivated policies were adopted in all subfields of this area (150 regulations, directives and decisions) 
    • The scope of European environment policy grew but was still rather scattered and dealt only with acute pollution problems, e.g. acidification.
    • International environmental regimes emerged simultaneously with European environmental policy. 
    • July 1972  -  UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) marked the beginning of a period of international cooperation.
  • 1987-2000
    • The third phase  after adoption of the Single European Act (SEA) in 1987 (in the SEA a chapter on environmental policy was added to the Treaty)
    •  EP was developed very speedily; 
    • 96 legal acts were adopted before the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty, 
    •  plus: about 160 acts before the Nice Treaty in 2000 
  • The forth phase – 2000-present ?
Q:

What is a cost-effective analysis?

A:

Cost – effective analysis

  •  is one of the methods using for balancing costs and benefits.
  •  It is used in setting policies and programs/projects, in their evaluation (ex-ante, mid-term, ex post).
  • not monetary
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