Networking Services at Western Governors University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Networking Services an der Western Governors University

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How many bits and octets are in an IP address?

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32 bits and 4 octets.

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What is DHCP discovery?

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The process by which a client configured to use DHCP attempts to get network configuration information.

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Describe the 4 steps in DHCP discovery.

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1. DHCPDISCOVER- The DHCP client sends what's known as a DHCP discover message out on to the network. The client sends a UDP datagram with a source UDP port 67 and a destination UDP port of 68 that is encapsulated into an IP datagram with a source IP of 0.0.0.0 and a destination IP of 255.255.255.255. The DHCP server would examine its own configuration and base its decision on what IP address to assign based on its allocation configuration (fixed, automatic or dynamic).

2. DHCPOFFER- A DHCP offer message is sent with a destination port of 68 a source port of 67, a source IP of 255.255.255.255 and the new IP address the client will be assigned as the IP source. This offer would be broadcast to every machine on the network but the original client would recognize that this message was intended for itself since the DHCPOFFER broadcast has a field that specifies the MAC address of the client that sent the original DHCPDISCOVER message. The client would now process this DHCPOFFER to what if it wants to accept the IP being offered.

3. DHCPREQUEST- this is a message sent from the client (still with a source IP Address of 0.0.0.0 and UDP source port of 68) to the DHCP server that says it accepts the IP address it was offered.

4. DHCPACK- once the DHCP server receives the DHCPREQUEST broadcast, it sends a DHCPACK (ACKNOWLEDGMENT) message to broadcast IP 255.255.255.255 with the source IP being the actual I of the DHCP server. The client would know the broadcast was intended for itself because the MAC address in one of the message fields. The networking stack on the client computer can now use the configuration information that it was sent by the DHCP server to set up its own network layer configuration.

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What is DHCP Dynamic Allocation?

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When there's a range of IP addresses set aside for client devices and one of them is issued to these devices when they request one. 

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What is Domain Name?

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The term we use for something that can be resolved by DNS.

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Why is DNS important?

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It allows for easy to remember website names instead of having to remember a 32 digit IP address. It also allows for a company to switch networks and IP addresses and users still being able to find their website.

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How many root servers are there?

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13

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A DNS TTL determines what?

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How long a DNS entry is allowed to be cached.

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What are the restrictions of a fully qualified domain name?

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Each fully qualified domain name must have a top level domain, a domain name, and a subdomain section.

Each individual section can only be 63 characters long.

An entire fully qualified domain name is limited to 255 characters.

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What is DHCP

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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol


An Application Layer Protocol that automates the configuration process of hosts on a network.

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What is Fixed allocation?

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When there's a manually specified list of MAC addresses and their corresponding IPs.

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What are RIRs responsible for?

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Assigning IP address blocks to organizations within their geographical locations

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Q:

How many bits and octets are in an IP address?

A:

32 bits and 4 octets.

Q:

What is DHCP discovery?

A:

The process by which a client configured to use DHCP attempts to get network configuration information.

Q:

Describe the 4 steps in DHCP discovery.

A:

1. DHCPDISCOVER- The DHCP client sends what's known as a DHCP discover message out on to the network. The client sends a UDP datagram with a source UDP port 67 and a destination UDP port of 68 that is encapsulated into an IP datagram with a source IP of 0.0.0.0 and a destination IP of 255.255.255.255. The DHCP server would examine its own configuration and base its decision on what IP address to assign based on its allocation configuration (fixed, automatic or dynamic).

2. DHCPOFFER- A DHCP offer message is sent with a destination port of 68 a source port of 67, a source IP of 255.255.255.255 and the new IP address the client will be assigned as the IP source. This offer would be broadcast to every machine on the network but the original client would recognize that this message was intended for itself since the DHCPOFFER broadcast has a field that specifies the MAC address of the client that sent the original DHCPDISCOVER message. The client would now process this DHCPOFFER to what if it wants to accept the IP being offered.

3. DHCPREQUEST- this is a message sent from the client (still with a source IP Address of 0.0.0.0 and UDP source port of 68) to the DHCP server that says it accepts the IP address it was offered.

4. DHCPACK- once the DHCP server receives the DHCPREQUEST broadcast, it sends a DHCPACK (ACKNOWLEDGMENT) message to broadcast IP 255.255.255.255 with the source IP being the actual I of the DHCP server. The client would know the broadcast was intended for itself because the MAC address in one of the message fields. The networking stack on the client computer can now use the configuration information that it was sent by the DHCP server to set up its own network layer configuration.

Q:

What is DHCP Dynamic Allocation?

A:

When there's a range of IP addresses set aside for client devices and one of them is issued to these devices when they request one. 

Q:

What is Domain Name?

A:

The term we use for something that can be resolved by DNS.

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Q:

Why is DNS important?

A:

It allows for easy to remember website names instead of having to remember a 32 digit IP address. It also allows for a company to switch networks and IP addresses and users still being able to find their website.

Q:

How many root servers are there?

A:

13

Q:

A DNS TTL determines what?

A:

How long a DNS entry is allowed to be cached.

Q:

What are the restrictions of a fully qualified domain name?

A:

Each fully qualified domain name must have a top level domain, a domain name, and a subdomain section.

Each individual section can only be 63 characters long.

An entire fully qualified domain name is limited to 255 characters.

Q:

What is DHCP

A:

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol


An Application Layer Protocol that automates the configuration process of hosts on a network.

Q:

What is Fixed allocation?

A:

When there's a manually specified list of MAC addresses and their corresponding IPs.

Q:

What are RIRs responsible for?

A:

Assigning IP address blocks to organizations within their geographical locations

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