Dominance Territory at Walter Sisulu Universität | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Dominance territory an der Walter Sisulu Universität

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demonstrate cooperation and division of labor in bees

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In bees, there is cooperation and division of dutir=es among different sexes and age groups. 

A bee colony normally has one adult queen and over 80k workers that are all females. At times a few drones that die after mating with the queen are present.

The queen is the only female that reproduces.

The youngest workers act as nurses that feed the larvae. A week after their nursing duties, they produce wax, build and maintain wax cells. The older workers are foragers. 

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How do monogamous female animals such as birds obtain high ranks?

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Females obtain high rang due to the status of their mate.

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What are some of the costs associated with territorial behavior?

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A lot of energy and time is spent on defending the territory. At times intruders ignore visual and auditory signals which results in fights and placing lives of males in danger.  More energy and time is spent on defending the territory than on foraging, building nests, and reproduction.


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with examples, Explain how hormones play a role in dominance

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Testosterone increase aggressiveness in males which leads to greater dominance. 

Estrogen on the other hand reduces dominance in females. For example, in chickens, the rooster has more/higher testosterone than the hen, thus is more dominant. 

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demonstrate how birds become territorial in the breeding season

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At the beginning of the breeding season, males select a territory. They use a lot of energy to mark and select a territory. Male birds usually show each other respect and do not display dominance when in between territories, however, are more dominant close to their territory. They announce their territory through songs. Male birds use songs and patterns of coloration to also attract potential mates.

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What are the benefits associated with territorial behavior?


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Territoriality provides exclusive rights to food and breeding sites. There is higher chance of finding a breeding partner which means greater reproductive success. For example, in lions, failure to establish a territory results in reproductive failure. 

Territoriality reduces conflicts between animals of the same species. 

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How does reproduction in the absence of males occur in bees?

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The queen store sperms from previous mates. She then lays eggs and releases the sperm cells over the eggs to fertilize them, resulting in female offspring.

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How do drones come about?

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Drones develop by pathenogenesis.

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How is dominance established in wasps?

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They engage in fights until one wins and the winner becomes the queen and is rarely challenged.

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How do bees communicate?

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They communicate through a series of body movements (dancing)

The type of dance is determined by the distance of food from the colony in relation to the sun. 

The round dance communicates the location of food if it is near the hive (+-50 m). A waggle dance communicates the location of food slightly away from the colony. 

​Bees also use auditory signals to communicate the location of food.


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What happens in fish when the dominant male dies or is removed from the territory?

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The most dominant female becomes the new male and protects the territory by undergoing sex reversal.

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Mention some of the activities animals perform to establish dominance

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Posturing, roaring, leaping about, etc.

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Q:

demonstrate cooperation and division of labor in bees

A:

In bees, there is cooperation and division of dutir=es among different sexes and age groups. 

A bee colony normally has one adult queen and over 80k workers that are all females. At times a few drones that die after mating with the queen are present.

The queen is the only female that reproduces.

The youngest workers act as nurses that feed the larvae. A week after their nursing duties, they produce wax, build and maintain wax cells. The older workers are foragers. 

Q:

How do monogamous female animals such as birds obtain high ranks?

A:

Females obtain high rang due to the status of their mate.

Q:

What are some of the costs associated with territorial behavior?

A:

A lot of energy and time is spent on defending the territory. At times intruders ignore visual and auditory signals which results in fights and placing lives of males in danger.  More energy and time is spent on defending the territory than on foraging, building nests, and reproduction.


Q:

with examples, Explain how hormones play a role in dominance

A:

Testosterone increase aggressiveness in males which leads to greater dominance. 

Estrogen on the other hand reduces dominance in females. For example, in chickens, the rooster has more/higher testosterone than the hen, thus is more dominant. 

Q:

demonstrate how birds become territorial in the breeding season

A:

At the beginning of the breeding season, males select a territory. They use a lot of energy to mark and select a territory. Male birds usually show each other respect and do not display dominance when in between territories, however, are more dominant close to their territory. They announce their territory through songs. Male birds use songs and patterns of coloration to also attract potential mates.

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Q:

What are the benefits associated with territorial behavior?


A:

Territoriality provides exclusive rights to food and breeding sites. There is higher chance of finding a breeding partner which means greater reproductive success. For example, in lions, failure to establish a territory results in reproductive failure. 

Territoriality reduces conflicts between animals of the same species. 

Q:

How does reproduction in the absence of males occur in bees?

A:

The queen store sperms from previous mates. She then lays eggs and releases the sperm cells over the eggs to fertilize them, resulting in female offspring.

Q:

How do drones come about?

A:

Drones develop by pathenogenesis.

Q:

How is dominance established in wasps?

A:

They engage in fights until one wins and the winner becomes the queen and is rarely challenged.

Q:

How do bees communicate?

A:

They communicate through a series of body movements (dancing)

The type of dance is determined by the distance of food from the colony in relation to the sun. 

The round dance communicates the location of food if it is near the hive (+-50 m). A waggle dance communicates the location of food slightly away from the colony. 

​Bees also use auditory signals to communicate the location of food.


Q:

What happens in fish when the dominant male dies or is removed from the territory?

A:

The most dominant female becomes the new male and protects the territory by undergoing sex reversal.

Q:

Mention some of the activities animals perform to establish dominance

A:

Posturing, roaring, leaping about, etc.

Dominance territory

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