13 Lecture exam at Wageningen University

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Give the names of the meninges (membranes) of the mammalian brain from outside in (1, 2, 3)


The space between the meninges is filled with...

Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


In a.o. carnivorous mammals the temporal fenestrae has fused with the orbital cavity


Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


Do not contribute to reduction in the weight of the skull

Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


are located in various regions of the skull

Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

offer space in the lateral direction for contraction of the jaw muscles

Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


in mammals, only the upper fenestra remains intact (euryapsid)

Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


are only present in Amniota

Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


allow the brains to expand their growth

Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

This question is about muscle A and B:


  • the cross section of muscle A is twice as small as muscle B 
  • muscle A is twice as long as muscle B 
  • both muscles have parallel fibers


Which of the following statements are correct, when we compare the maximum contraction speed and maximum power of both muscles?


Note: muscle A and B have a similar composition of fibre types and a similar volume.

  1. maximum power will be the same for both muscles
  2. maximum power will be the highest in muscle B
  3. maximum contraction speed will be highest in muscle A
  4. Maximum contraction speed will be the same for both muscles



Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

What are the subclasses of Mammalia (a,b,c)?

Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

What are two reptile-traits of the still living early mammals, like the platypus (d,e)?

Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

What is the difference between synapomorphic and plesiomorphic traits?

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Exemplary flashcards for 13 Lecture exam at the Wageningen University on StudySmarter:

13 Lecture exam

Give the names of the meninges (membranes) of the mammalian brain from outside in (1, 2, 3)


The space between the meninges is filled with...

Meninges: 

  • dura mater, arachnoidea, pia mater

The space between the meninges is filled with 

  • liquor cerebrospinalis

13 Lecture exam

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


In a.o. carnivorous mammals the temporal fenestrae has fused with the orbital cavity


True

13 Lecture exam

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


Do not contribute to reduction in the weight of the skull

False

13 Lecture exam

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


are located in various regions of the skull

False

13 Lecture exam

offer space in the lateral direction for contraction of the jaw muscles

True

13 Lecture exam

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


in mammals, only the upper fenestra remains intact (euryapsid)

False

13 Lecture exam

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


are only present in Amniota

True

13 Lecture exam

Choose the correct statements about temporal fenestrae:


allow the brains to expand their growth

True

13 Lecture exam

This question is about muscle A and B:


  • the cross section of muscle A is twice as small as muscle B 
  • muscle A is twice as long as muscle B 
  • both muscles have parallel fibers


Which of the following statements are correct, when we compare the maximum contraction speed and maximum power of both muscles?


Note: muscle A and B have a similar composition of fibre types and a similar volume.

  1. maximum power will be the same for both muscles
  2. maximum power will be the highest in muscle B
  3. maximum contraction speed will be highest in muscle A
  4. Maximum contraction speed will be the same for both muscles



Correct statements are 

  • maximum power will be the same for both muscles
  • maximum contraction speed will be highest in muscle A

13 Lecture exam

What are the subclasses of Mammalia (a,b,c)?

  • Protheria (monotremata), 
  • Metatheria ( marsupialia) 
  • Eutheria (placentalia)

13 Lecture exam

What are two reptile-traits of the still living early mammals, like the platypus (d,e)?

  • having a cloaca 
  • laying eggs (oviparous)

13 Lecture exam

What is the difference between synapomorphic and plesiomorphic traits?

  • Synapomoric characteristics are shared (syn-) and new (apo- = ‘away from’) so not-ancestral.
    • These traits must be shared by at least 2 taxons
    • Usually, the term is used when a majority of the taxons of a group possesses (or possessed) the traits (remember traits may be lost).

 

  • Plesiomorphic characteristics are ancestral or primitive characteristics. 

 

For both synapomorphic and plesiomorphic: we always compare with the MRCA (most recent common ancestor)

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