Pathology at Vilnius University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Pathology an der Vilnius University

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Megaloblastic anemia 

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Impairment of DNA synthesis (ineffective hematopoiesis and distinctive morphologic changes including abnormally large erythroid precursor and red cells)

Pernicious anemia: major form of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia 

Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency are most common cause -> are coenzymes required for synthesis of thymidine (for DNA)

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Iron deficiency anemia

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Low serum iron and ferritin levels 

hypochromic microcytic anemia

80% of functional iron is in hemoglobin

Epithelial tissue atrophy is common
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Body fluid compartments

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1/3 

extracellular fluid (25% interstitial fluid (ISF) - fluid between cells, 5-8% in plasma (intravascular fluid), 1-2% in transcellular fluids)

2/3 

intracellular fluid (ICF) 

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Tonicity

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Measure of osmotic pressure gradient between two solutions

Predominant solute in extracellular space is sodium

Changes in tonicity lead to changes in cells size

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Metabolic acidosis 

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Decreased pH 
Decreased HCo3 
High anion gap 
Build up acid due to HCo3 loss through kidneys or GI tract 
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Classification of anemias (etiology and pathogenesis) 
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Anemia of blood loss (acute or chronic)
Hemolytic anemia (intrinsic or extrinsic) 
Anemia due to impaired RBC production 
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Esophageal achalasia 
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Smooth muscle disorder due to failure of smooth muscle relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, which causes obstruction at the gastroesophageal junction 
Because of degeneration of inhibitory neuronal ganglion cell degeneration 
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Effective arterial blood volume 
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Senses fullness of arterial system
EAV is the arterial volume detected by the baroreceptors (respond to pressure not volume)
Detect distinction of arterial walls 
Pressure and volume changes parallel with changes in sodium intake or loss (mostly)

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Major types of baroreceptors 
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  • receptors in juxtaglomerular cells (sense perfusion in kidney pressure; release renin in hypoperfusion activating RAAS)
  • Receptors in carotid and aorta (regulates the activity of sympathetic nervous system; increase sympathetic activity also leads to increase renin release)
  • Cardiac receptors (produce natriuresis and vasodilation)
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KUSSMAUL
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  • Ketoacidosis (diabetic) 
  • Uremia (renal failure)
  • Salicylate intoxication 
  • Starvation 
  • Methanol intoxication
  • Alcohol ketoacidosis 
  • Unmeasured asmoles (intoxication)
  • Lactic acidosis 
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Hypovolemia 
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Negative fluid balance 
ECF volume depletion due to net loss of sodium 
Causes:
  • Gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhea, external fistulas)
  • Renal (chronic kidney disease, mineralcorticoid deficiency, diuretics) 
  • Skin (burns, sweating) 
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Polycythemia 
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Abnormally high total RBC mass with a hematocrit > 54% in males 51% in females 
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  • 10042 Karteikarten
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Pathology Kurs an der Vilnius University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Megaloblastic anemia 

A:

Impairment of DNA synthesis (ineffective hematopoiesis and distinctive morphologic changes including abnormally large erythroid precursor and red cells)

Pernicious anemia: major form of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia 

Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency are most common cause -> are coenzymes required for synthesis of thymidine (for DNA)

Q:

Iron deficiency anemia

A:

Low serum iron and ferritin levels 

hypochromic microcytic anemia

80% of functional iron is in hemoglobin

Epithelial tissue atrophy is common
Q:

Body fluid compartments

A:

1/3 

extracellular fluid (25% interstitial fluid (ISF) - fluid between cells, 5-8% in plasma (intravascular fluid), 1-2% in transcellular fluids)

2/3 

intracellular fluid (ICF) 

Q:

Tonicity

A:

Measure of osmotic pressure gradient between two solutions

Predominant solute in extracellular space is sodium

Changes in tonicity lead to changes in cells size

Q:
Metabolic acidosis 

A:
Decreased pH 
Decreased HCo3 
High anion gap 
Build up acid due to HCo3 loss through kidneys or GI tract 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Classification of anemias (etiology and pathogenesis) 
A:
Anemia of blood loss (acute or chronic)
Hemolytic anemia (intrinsic or extrinsic) 
Anemia due to impaired RBC production 
Q:
Esophageal achalasia 
A:
Smooth muscle disorder due to failure of smooth muscle relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, which causes obstruction at the gastroesophageal junction 
Because of degeneration of inhibitory neuronal ganglion cell degeneration 
Q:
Effective arterial blood volume 
A:
Senses fullness of arterial system
EAV is the arterial volume detected by the baroreceptors (respond to pressure not volume)
Detect distinction of arterial walls 
Pressure and volume changes parallel with changes in sodium intake or loss (mostly)

Q:
Major types of baroreceptors 
A:
  • receptors in juxtaglomerular cells (sense perfusion in kidney pressure; release renin in hypoperfusion activating RAAS)
  • Receptors in carotid and aorta (regulates the activity of sympathetic nervous system; increase sympathetic activity also leads to increase renin release)
  • Cardiac receptors (produce natriuresis and vasodilation)
Q:
KUSSMAUL
A:
  • Ketoacidosis (diabetic) 
  • Uremia (renal failure)
  • Salicylate intoxication 
  • Starvation 
  • Methanol intoxication
  • Alcohol ketoacidosis 
  • Unmeasured asmoles (intoxication)
  • Lactic acidosis 
Q:
Hypovolemia 
A:
Negative fluid balance 
ECF volume depletion due to net loss of sodium 
Causes:
  • Gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhea, external fistulas)
  • Renal (chronic kidney disease, mineralcorticoid deficiency, diuretics) 
  • Skin (burns, sweating) 
Q:
Polycythemia 
A:
Abnormally high total RBC mass with a hematocrit > 54% in males 51% in females 
Pathology

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