Hardening, Tempering And Annealing at Vermont Technical College | Flashcards & Summaries

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What is Process Annealing? 
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Performed between a series of cold working operations to re-form the grain to the original soft, ductile condition. 
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How is a Rockwell tester used? 
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By applying two separate loads (one minor, one major) on one specimen and measuring the depth of penetration between the minor and major loads. 
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What different penetrators can be used in a Rockwell hardness tester? 

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  • Brale- a cone shaped diamond usually used to test harder materials over B-100
  • Steel ball- used for softer materials ranging from B-0 to B-100, typically a 1/16” dia ball but other sizes include 1/2” 1/4” and 1/8” dia 
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What is Stress Relief Annealing? 
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The process of reheating low carbon steels to 950 degrees Fahrenheit. This relieves the stress in the ferrite while limiting the amount of distortion caused by the heating. 
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How is a Brinell hardness tester used? 
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By forcing a steel ball (typically 10mm in dia) into a specimen using a known load weight, and then measuring the dia of the resulting impression.
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What is Spheroidize Annealing? 
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The process of prolonged heating to slightly below the critical range. This improves machinability of high carbon steels. 
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What three methods can you use to test the hardness of a material? 
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  • Resistance to penetration 
  • Elastic hardness 
  • Resistance to abrasion 
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What is Carburizing? 
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When carbon from an outside source penetrates the surface of the steel. (Occurs during the process of case hardening) 
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What are two different forms of carburizing? 
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  • Roll Carburizing- produces a max case thickness of .003” 
  • Pack Carburizing- produces a max case thickness of 1/16” 
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What is Tempering? 
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The process of reheating a steel part that has already been hardened to transform some of the hard martensite in softer structures. 
The higher the temp, the more martensite is transformed, resulting in a softer and tougher (less brittle) material. 
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What is a Full Anneal? 
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The process used to completely soften hardened steel. Usually performed to ensure easier machining of tool steels with more than 8% carbon content. 
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What is Normalizing? 
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Similar to a Full Anneal but doesn’t completely soften the metal. Creates a finer but harder microstructure that allows a better surface finish. 
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Q:
What is Process Annealing? 
A:
Performed between a series of cold working operations to re-form the grain to the original soft, ductile condition. 
Q:
How is a Rockwell tester used? 
A:
By applying two separate loads (one minor, one major) on one specimen and measuring the depth of penetration between the minor and major loads. 
Q:
What different penetrators can be used in a Rockwell hardness tester? 

A:
  • Brale- a cone shaped diamond usually used to test harder materials over B-100
  • Steel ball- used for softer materials ranging from B-0 to B-100, typically a 1/16” dia ball but other sizes include 1/2” 1/4” and 1/8” dia 
Q:
What is Stress Relief Annealing? 
A:
The process of reheating low carbon steels to 950 degrees Fahrenheit. This relieves the stress in the ferrite while limiting the amount of distortion caused by the heating. 
Q:
How is a Brinell hardness tester used? 
A:
By forcing a steel ball (typically 10mm in dia) into a specimen using a known load weight, and then measuring the dia of the resulting impression.
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is Spheroidize Annealing? 
A:
The process of prolonged heating to slightly below the critical range. This improves machinability of high carbon steels. 
Q:
What three methods can you use to test the hardness of a material? 
A:
  • Resistance to penetration 
  • Elastic hardness 
  • Resistance to abrasion 
Q:
What is Carburizing? 
A:
When carbon from an outside source penetrates the surface of the steel. (Occurs during the process of case hardening) 
Q:
What are two different forms of carburizing? 
A:
  • Roll Carburizing- produces a max case thickness of .003” 
  • Pack Carburizing- produces a max case thickness of 1/16” 
Q:
What is Tempering? 
A:
The process of reheating a steel part that has already been hardened to transform some of the hard martensite in softer structures. 
The higher the temp, the more martensite is transformed, resulting in a softer and tougher (less brittle) material. 
Q:
What is a Full Anneal? 
A:
The process used to completely soften hardened steel. Usually performed to ensure easier machining of tool steels with more than 8% carbon content. 
Q:
What is Normalizing? 
A:
Similar to a Full Anneal but doesn’t completely soften the metal. Creates a finer but harder microstructure that allows a better surface finish. 
hardening, tempering and annealing

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