Biorefinery at Utrecht University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Biorefinery an der Utrecht University

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Organosolv
Process and products?

Advantages?

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products

-high purity lignin + cellulose pulp + hemicellulose + lower amounts of carbohydrates and ash


process

-pulping with water and organic solvent and acid catalyst


advantages

-additonal value with high quality lignin (waste in Kraft- or sulfite process)

-easy separation and solvent (short ROH, acetic acid, formic acid) recovery by distillation, leading to less water pollution and elimination of the odour usually associated with kraft pulping.


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What is circular economy?
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Resources are kept in use for as long as possible - to extract the maximum value - then recover and regenerate 
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What does an efficient biofuel production require?

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- High yield (t product/ t raw material)
- Purity of by-products
- Minimum waste production
- High energy efficiency incl. feed purification, catalyst production + recycling, by-product purification and waste treatment
- Economic process

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Motivation for biorefinery?

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Finite nature besides contribution to global warming have sparked tremendous research in biorefinery and the use of biomass feedstocks as an alternative carbon source to replace tradtional fossil feedstocks in the production of chemicals, fuels, heat and power.

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We can identify several benefits of using biomass as a feedstock over fossil-based feedstocks. Name a few advantages.

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-Higher energy security                                    

-Circular economy and circular value chains

-Ideally carbon neutral              

-Rural economic development                       

-Shorter transport (e.g. Oil from Middle East or Nord Stream)

-New products with superior properties    

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Drawbacks of biomass

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Varying composition of biomass

Which?, When?, Where? biomass is grown determines its composition


-Heterogeneous mix with many different components: e.g. lipids, carbohydrates, proteins require highly tailored processes for each type

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Which benefits come with multi-product biorefining (co-producing) opposed to the dedicated production of a single product?        

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-Co-producing higher value products enables selling primary product at lower price            

-Co-producing takes advantage of economies of scale --> reduces production costs compared to their exclusive synthesis

-Product diversity helps protect the biorefinery from seasonal demand cycles and market downturns. (cf. oil refinery, in summer more gasoline, in winter more heavy oil for heating)                      

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If a co-product is of higher value than the main product of a biorefinery, why wouldn’t you dedicate the entire plant to the co-product?        

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-The market size for most higher value co-products is too small.                      

-Dedicated production of such a product is more cost-efficient when done together with the production of a commodity.                       

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Definition of biorefinery

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The (sustainable) processing of biomass into biobased products and supply of bioenergy.

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Designing a biorefinery process.

Considerations and important underlying questions.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Holistic approach --> max. output, utilising all available functional fractions


1) understanding which compounds are present at each source?

2) how are they interconnected? (knowing which forces keep them together, allows for more selective and efficient deconstrution and separation)

3) finally, know which scale of purification is necessary for every compound?


e.g. corn plant: we can use the stem and the seeds:

stem: provides lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, some proteins, and lipids.

seeds provide oil, proteins, and starch.

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Lignin

Structure, function and use?

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-Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer and an essential component of many plant cell walls.

-Strongly interconnected units form long and rigid fibrils providing protecting the plant against water.

-It is mainly used by the paper and pulp industry --> energy recovery, coatings

- Currently, no commercial production of chemicals from lignin -> challenging selective decomposition into all its monomers (very heterogeneous material).

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Cellulose

Structure, function and use?


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-Most abundant biopolymer (D-glucose, linked through 1,4-glycosidic bond)

-crystalline, straight chains, intra- and interchain H-bonding -> high rigidity

--> formation of fibrils, hydrophobic, water-insoluble


-Supports tissue in the plant


-USE: paper industry, clothes, biofuels --> glucose fermentation, polyol/HMF-platform

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Q:
Organosolv
Process and products?

Advantages?

A:

products

-high purity lignin + cellulose pulp + hemicellulose + lower amounts of carbohydrates and ash


process

-pulping with water and organic solvent and acid catalyst


advantages

-additonal value with high quality lignin (waste in Kraft- or sulfite process)

-easy separation and solvent (short ROH, acetic acid, formic acid) recovery by distillation, leading to less water pollution and elimination of the odour usually associated with kraft pulping.


Q:
What is circular economy?
A:
Resources are kept in use for as long as possible - to extract the maximum value - then recover and regenerate 
Q:

What does an efficient biofuel production require?

A:


- High yield (t product/ t raw material)
- Purity of by-products
- Minimum waste production
- High energy efficiency incl. feed purification, catalyst production + recycling, by-product purification and waste treatment
- Economic process

Q:

Motivation for biorefinery?

A:

Finite nature besides contribution to global warming have sparked tremendous research in biorefinery and the use of biomass feedstocks as an alternative carbon source to replace tradtional fossil feedstocks in the production of chemicals, fuels, heat and power.

Q:

We can identify several benefits of using biomass as a feedstock over fossil-based feedstocks. Name a few advantages.

A:

-Higher energy security                                    

-Circular economy and circular value chains

-Ideally carbon neutral              

-Rural economic development                       

-Shorter transport (e.g. Oil from Middle East or Nord Stream)

-New products with superior properties    

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Q:

Drawbacks of biomass

A:

Varying composition of biomass

Which?, When?, Where? biomass is grown determines its composition


-Heterogeneous mix with many different components: e.g. lipids, carbohydrates, proteins require highly tailored processes for each type

Q:

Which benefits come with multi-product biorefining (co-producing) opposed to the dedicated production of a single product?        

A:

-Co-producing higher value products enables selling primary product at lower price            

-Co-producing takes advantage of economies of scale --> reduces production costs compared to their exclusive synthesis

-Product diversity helps protect the biorefinery from seasonal demand cycles and market downturns. (cf. oil refinery, in summer more gasoline, in winter more heavy oil for heating)                      

Q:

If a co-product is of higher value than the main product of a biorefinery, why wouldn’t you dedicate the entire plant to the co-product?        

A:

-The market size for most higher value co-products is too small.                      

-Dedicated production of such a product is more cost-efficient when done together with the production of a commodity.                       

Q:

Definition of biorefinery

A:

The (sustainable) processing of biomass into biobased products and supply of bioenergy.

Q:

Designing a biorefinery process.

Considerations and important underlying questions.

A:

Holistic approach --> max. output, utilising all available functional fractions


1) understanding which compounds are present at each source?

2) how are they interconnected? (knowing which forces keep them together, allows for more selective and efficient deconstrution and separation)

3) finally, know which scale of purification is necessary for every compound?


e.g. corn plant: we can use the stem and the seeds:

stem: provides lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, some proteins, and lipids.

seeds provide oil, proteins, and starch.

Q:

Lignin

Structure, function and use?

A:

-Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer and an essential component of many plant cell walls.

-Strongly interconnected units form long and rigid fibrils providing protecting the plant against water.

-It is mainly used by the paper and pulp industry --> energy recovery, coatings

- Currently, no commercial production of chemicals from lignin -> challenging selective decomposition into all its monomers (very heterogeneous material).

Q:

Cellulose

Structure, function and use?


A:

-Most abundant biopolymer (D-glucose, linked through 1,4-glycosidic bond)

-crystalline, straight chains, intra- and interchain H-bonding -> high rigidity

--> formation of fibrils, hydrophobic, water-insoluble


-Supports tissue in the plant


-USE: paper industry, clothes, biofuels --> glucose fermentation, polyol/HMF-platform

Biorefinery

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