Development Of Multicellular Systems at University Of Zurich | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Development of multicellular systems an der University of Zurich

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ORTHOLOGS

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after gene duplication one homolog sorts with one species and the other one with the other à sequences diverge but they maintain the same activity

à orthologs have homologous origin and also homologous activity

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Similarity

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describes the degree of sequence match between compared sequences

(homologous genes can be 100& similar or only 72%)

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maternal control of development, is the phase equal for all organisms?

what is the characteristic of maternal phase for embryo?

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with maternal effect genes

precise developmental time period and developmental processes under maternal control vary among organisms (cell division, patterning, cellular differentiation. 


During this phase the embryo is transcriptionally silent

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ANALOGS

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Genes/ proteins share same activity but not a common origin à have the same function but they lack sufficient similarity to imply that they have a common origin. 

à homologous activity but heterologous origin

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 cell differentiation

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process through which immature cells become progressively specialised

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PARALOGS

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homologous genes (similar sequences) produced by a gene duplication

à common ancestral gene but have diverged during evolution within the same species à divergence of sequence leads to different activities 

à homologous origin but heterologous activities --> “Division of labour

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morphogen

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molecule that can provide positional information by regulating gene expression in a concentration dependent manner

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organiser

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Tissue that induces and patterns surroundings via induction

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How can you overcome pleiotropy and study the role of different individual genes in living organisms?

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mosaic animals = composed by >2 genotipically different cells 

by method of induction of mitotic recombination --> recombination occurs between sister chromatids in somatic cells before cell division producing 2 cells with different genotypes

drosophila (FLP/FRT System)

mouse (CRE/LoX-P System)


transposable elements can be used to insert in genome eg. Flp (Flipase) binds to Dna sequences caled FRT--> catalyzes chromosomal exchange, when FRT is present on both chromatids it catalyzes transchromosomal exchange. (happens in G2 phase while homologous are pared)

When Flipase is expressed while a tissue grows, there will be 2 population of cells..

cells with no recombination (normal phenotype) and homozygot mutant

when recombination happens early, intere structures are mutated (whole ear) 

later induction in a tissue leads to a clone of cells, that arose from one single ancestral cell

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advantages of recombination

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site specific

recombination is inducible, highly efficient, (gene encoding recombinase can be put under the control of a tissue specific promoter --> inducible with light, heat)

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Can regulators of fate induce physical change?

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NO, only effectors can (are regulated by regulators (TF, signalling pathways)

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twin spot clones

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2 individual and gen. different cells that have originated from the same meiotic recombination event

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Q:

ORTHOLOGS

A:

after gene duplication one homolog sorts with one species and the other one with the other à sequences diverge but they maintain the same activity

à orthologs have homologous origin and also homologous activity

Q:

Similarity

A:

describes the degree of sequence match between compared sequences

(homologous genes can be 100& similar or only 72%)

Q:

maternal control of development, is the phase equal for all organisms?

what is the characteristic of maternal phase for embryo?

A:

with maternal effect genes

precise developmental time period and developmental processes under maternal control vary among organisms (cell division, patterning, cellular differentiation. 


During this phase the embryo is transcriptionally silent

Q:

ANALOGS

A:

Genes/ proteins share same activity but not a common origin à have the same function but they lack sufficient similarity to imply that they have a common origin. 

à homologous activity but heterologous origin

Q:

 cell differentiation

A:

process through which immature cells become progressively specialised

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

PARALOGS

A:

homologous genes (similar sequences) produced by a gene duplication

à common ancestral gene but have diverged during evolution within the same species à divergence of sequence leads to different activities 

à homologous origin but heterologous activities --> “Division of labour

Q:

morphogen

A:

molecule that can provide positional information by regulating gene expression in a concentration dependent manner

Q:

organiser

A:

Tissue that induces and patterns surroundings via induction

Q:

How can you overcome pleiotropy and study the role of different individual genes in living organisms?

A:

mosaic animals = composed by >2 genotipically different cells 

by method of induction of mitotic recombination --> recombination occurs between sister chromatids in somatic cells before cell division producing 2 cells with different genotypes

drosophila (FLP/FRT System)

mouse (CRE/LoX-P System)


transposable elements can be used to insert in genome eg. Flp (Flipase) binds to Dna sequences caled FRT--> catalyzes chromosomal exchange, when FRT is present on both chromatids it catalyzes transchromosomal exchange. (happens in G2 phase while homologous are pared)

When Flipase is expressed while a tissue grows, there will be 2 population of cells..

cells with no recombination (normal phenotype) and homozygot mutant

when recombination happens early, intere structures are mutated (whole ear) 

later induction in a tissue leads to a clone of cells, that arose from one single ancestral cell

Q:

advantages of recombination

A:

site specific

recombination is inducible, highly efficient, (gene encoding recombinase can be put under the control of a tissue specific promoter --> inducible with light, heat)

Q:

Can regulators of fate induce physical change?

A:

NO, only effectors can (are regulated by regulators (TF, signalling pathways)

Q:

twin spot clones

A:

2 individual and gen. different cells that have originated from the same meiotic recombination event

Development of multicellular systems

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