APES- Circulatory System at University Of Witwatersrand | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für APES- Circulatory system an der University of Witwatersrand

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what is the difference between the two different types of closed circulatory systems?

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Single-loop CS

  • heart only pumps blood once

Double-loop CS

  • Blood pumps blood TWICE
    • once to lungs and again to body
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What are the advantages of having a double-loop CS ?

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  • enables blood to be pumped at high pressure which
  • allows blood to efficiently transport materials to tissues with high metabolic rates
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What is the difference between the double-loop CS found in amphibians and mammals ?

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Amphibians ventricles are not completely separated and so there's a mixing of blood

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What is the main function of the heart's valves?

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To prevent the backflow of blood!

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What are the two types of circuits in the double-loop CS, their function and component ?

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Systemic circuit

  • beings at the left ventricle
  • function = transport blood to body
  • components
    • Aorta
    • Pulmonary vein
    • Arteries
    • arterioles
    • capillaries

Pulmonary circuit

  • begins at the right ventricle
  • function= transport substances to lungs
  • components
    • capillaries
    • venules
    • veins
    • Pulmonary artery
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Blood vessels

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Arteries= carry oxygenated blood AWAY from heart (except pulmonary artery- deoxygenated)

Capillaries= join arteries to veins; main site of gaseous exchange

Vein= carry deoxygenated blood TOWARDS heart (except pulmonary vein- oxygenated)


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Structures in babies heart that reduce the amount of blood flowing to baby's non-functional lungs

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Foramen ovale

Ductus arteriosus

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What are the Foramen ovale and Ductus arteriosus and what happens to these structures after birth ?

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  1. structures that loot the amount of blood that goes to baby's non-functional lungs
  2. what happens:
    • Foramen ovale closes overtime due to changes in pressure as baby adjusts to breathing outside the womb
    • smooth muscle around Ductus arteriosus constricts forming a temp closure which goes on to be permanent
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How are contractile cells able to control the contraction of the heart muscles?

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creates action potentials with a diff concentration of CA ions, which prevent cells from holding a contraction for too long- change in Ca+ ions enable the cells to contract AND relax

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Blood and it's components

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Blood = primary form of transport of substances around body

components:

Erythrocytes (RBC)- heaviest component in blood; NB role in transporting )2 around body via hemoglobin

Leukocytes (WBC)- from immune system; NB for fighting infection

Platelets= make blood clot

plasma= most abundant substance in blood; it's what enables blood to transport substances

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Components of the respiratory system

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blood vessels

blood

the heart

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What "back-up" system is put in place if the cardiac conduction system does not fucntion normally ?

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SA node makes 60-100 BPM

if SA node fails, AV node generates impulses (slower- at 40-60 BPM)

If AV and SA node fail, bundle pulses pick up and generate impulses at 20-40 BPM

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Q:

what is the difference between the two different types of closed circulatory systems?

A:

Single-loop CS

  • heart only pumps blood once

Double-loop CS

  • Blood pumps blood TWICE
    • once to lungs and again to body
Q:

What are the advantages of having a double-loop CS ?

A:
  • enables blood to be pumped at high pressure which
  • allows blood to efficiently transport materials to tissues with high metabolic rates
Q:

What is the difference between the double-loop CS found in amphibians and mammals ?

A:

Amphibians ventricles are not completely separated and so there's a mixing of blood

Q:

What is the main function of the heart's valves?

A:

To prevent the backflow of blood!

Q:

What are the two types of circuits in the double-loop CS, their function and component ?

A:

Systemic circuit

  • beings at the left ventricle
  • function = transport blood to body
  • components
    • Aorta
    • Pulmonary vein
    • Arteries
    • arterioles
    • capillaries

Pulmonary circuit

  • begins at the right ventricle
  • function= transport substances to lungs
  • components
    • capillaries
    • venules
    • veins
    • Pulmonary artery
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Q:

Blood vessels

A:

Arteries= carry oxygenated blood AWAY from heart (except pulmonary artery- deoxygenated)

Capillaries= join arteries to veins; main site of gaseous exchange

Vein= carry deoxygenated blood TOWARDS heart (except pulmonary vein- oxygenated)


Q:

Structures in babies heart that reduce the amount of blood flowing to baby's non-functional lungs

A:

Foramen ovale

Ductus arteriosus

Q:

What are the Foramen ovale and Ductus arteriosus and what happens to these structures after birth ?

A:
  1. structures that loot the amount of blood that goes to baby's non-functional lungs
  2. what happens:
    • Foramen ovale closes overtime due to changes in pressure as baby adjusts to breathing outside the womb
    • smooth muscle around Ductus arteriosus constricts forming a temp closure which goes on to be permanent
Q:

How are contractile cells able to control the contraction of the heart muscles?

A:

creates action potentials with a diff concentration of CA ions, which prevent cells from holding a contraction for too long- change in Ca+ ions enable the cells to contract AND relax

Q:

Blood and it's components

A:

Blood = primary form of transport of substances around body

components:

Erythrocytes (RBC)- heaviest component in blood; NB role in transporting )2 around body via hemoglobin

Leukocytes (WBC)- from immune system; NB for fighting infection

Platelets= make blood clot

plasma= most abundant substance in blood; it's what enables blood to transport substances

Q:

Components of the respiratory system

A:

blood vessels

blood

the heart

Q:

What "back-up" system is put in place if the cardiac conduction system does not fucntion normally ?

A:

SA node makes 60-100 BPM

if SA node fails, AV node generates impulses (slower- at 40-60 BPM)

If AV and SA node fail, bundle pulses pick up and generate impulses at 20-40 BPM

APES- Circulatory system

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