Pathology at University Of Western Ontario | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für pathology an der University of Western Ontario

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Metabolic or Endocrine

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Disorders of enzymes, hormones or secretory products (e.g. Type 2 diabetes). Some metabolic diseases
are genetic (e.g. congenital adrenal hyperplasia)

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cardiovascular disease: 

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A type of disease that affects the heart or blood vessels. The risk of certain cardiovascular diseases may be increased by smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, and obesity. 


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both genetic and environmental factors can be responsible for these diseases:

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i.e - heart disease, cancer, diabetes

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The immune response is normally protective, but in some circumstances the reaction may become
excessive (e.g. hypersensitivity reactions to allergens - anaphylactic shock) or may act against the body’s
own cells (e.g. autoimmune disease – thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis), or may be absent or depressed (e.g.
severe combined immunodeficiency disease, immunosuppressive therapy).

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anaphylactic shock: Anaphylaxis causes your immune system to release a flood of chemicals that can cause you to go into shock - your blood pressure drops suddenly and your airways narrow, blocking breathing. Signs and symptoms include a rapid, weak pulse; a skin rash; and nausea and vomiting. 

thyroiditis: Thyroiditis is the swelling, or inflammation, of the thyroid gland and can lead to over- or under-production of thyroid hormone. 

myasthenia gravis: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy the communication between nerves and muscle, resulting in weakness of the skeletal muscles. Myasthenia gravis affects the voluntary muscles of the body, especially those that control the eyes, mouth, throat and limbs. 

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hematology

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the study of disorders of the blood)

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gangrene.

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blood flow to large tissue is 😁

cut off

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difference between signs and symptoms?

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signs - those signs that can be objectively observed or measured by a physician, eg fever, a swollen ankle, an abnormal heartbeat or the alteration of some physiological, biochemical or morphological parameter, and

clinical symptoms - subjective complaints described by the patient, eg pain, dizziness, nausea. In many cases though, these changes appear late in the disease process, long after a disease is present and has been acting at the cellular level.

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Incidence Vs. Prevalence

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The incidence represents the number of new cases arising in a population over a given time period, and prevalence is the total number of cases (new and existing cases) of the disease in a given population.

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Etiology: 

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: the cause of a disease process (eg biological agents, chemical agents, or physical forces).

ie - hepatic cirrhosis - Cirrhosis is a late-stage liver disease in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue and the liver is permanently damaged.  impaired liver function caused by the formation of scar tissue known as fibrosis due to damage caused by liver disease - caused by viruses, alcohol and storage disorders

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complications: 

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the secondary consequences of the disease

i.e- post-operative infection

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difference: Morbidity and Mortality

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Morbidity: illness that impairs the well-being / normal functioning of a patient (living with disease).

 • Mortality: illness causing the death of a patient (death from disease).

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define disease.

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. Most broadly, the disease may be defined as the pattern of the response of living organisms to injury. When cells fail to adapt to the injury or the adaptive mechanism itself becomes harmful, disease results.

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Q:


Metabolic or Endocrine

A:

Disorders of enzymes, hormones or secretory products (e.g. Type 2 diabetes). Some metabolic diseases
are genetic (e.g. congenital adrenal hyperplasia)

Q:

cardiovascular disease: 

A:

A type of disease that affects the heart or blood vessels. The risk of certain cardiovascular diseases may be increased by smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, and obesity. 


Q:

both genetic and environmental factors can be responsible for these diseases:

A:

i.e - heart disease, cancer, diabetes

Q:


The immune response is normally protective, but in some circumstances the reaction may become
excessive (e.g. hypersensitivity reactions to allergens - anaphylactic shock) or may act against the body’s
own cells (e.g. autoimmune disease – thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis), or may be absent or depressed (e.g.
severe combined immunodeficiency disease, immunosuppressive therapy).

A:

anaphylactic shock: Anaphylaxis causes your immune system to release a flood of chemicals that can cause you to go into shock - your blood pressure drops suddenly and your airways narrow, blocking breathing. Signs and symptoms include a rapid, weak pulse; a skin rash; and nausea and vomiting. 

thyroiditis: Thyroiditis is the swelling, or inflammation, of the thyroid gland and can lead to over- or under-production of thyroid hormone. 

myasthenia gravis: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy the communication between nerves and muscle, resulting in weakness of the skeletal muscles. Myasthenia gravis affects the voluntary muscles of the body, especially those that control the eyes, mouth, throat and limbs. 

Q:


hematology

A:

the study of disorders of the blood)

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Q:


gangrene.

A:

blood flow to large tissue is 😁

cut off

Q:

difference between signs and symptoms?

A:


signs - those signs that can be objectively observed or measured by a physician, eg fever, a swollen ankle, an abnormal heartbeat or the alteration of some physiological, biochemical or morphological parameter, and

clinical symptoms - subjective complaints described by the patient, eg pain, dizziness, nausea. In many cases though, these changes appear late in the disease process, long after a disease is present and has been acting at the cellular level.

Q:

Incidence Vs. Prevalence

A:


The incidence represents the number of new cases arising in a population over a given time period, and prevalence is the total number of cases (new and existing cases) of the disease in a given population.

Q:

Etiology: 

A:

 

: the cause of a disease process (eg biological agents, chemical agents, or physical forces).

ie - hepatic cirrhosis - Cirrhosis is a late-stage liver disease in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue and the liver is permanently damaged.  impaired liver function caused by the formation of scar tissue known as fibrosis due to damage caused by liver disease - caused by viruses, alcohol and storage disorders

Q:

complications: 

A:

the secondary consequences of the disease

i.e- post-operative infection

Q:

difference: Morbidity and Mortality

A:


Morbidity: illness that impairs the well-being / normal functioning of a patient (living with disease).

 • Mortality: illness causing the death of a patient (death from disease).

Q:

define disease.

A:


. Most broadly, the disease may be defined as the pattern of the response of living organisms to injury. When cells fail to adapt to the injury or the adaptive mechanism itself becomes harmful, disease results.

pathology

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