Anatomy Skeletal at University Of Western Australia | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Anatomy Skeletal an der University of Western Australia

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The study of bone structure and disorders is called?
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Osteology
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The skeletal system is made up of? (3)
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  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Supporting connective tissue
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What are the functions of the skeletal system? (6)
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  • Supporting structural framework of the body
  • Protection of delicate structures (brain, spinal cord) 
  • Bones act as levers to produce movement
  • Storage of calcium, phosphorous, minerals and triglycerides
  • Mineral homeostasis: calcium and phosphorus
  • Hemopoiesis (production of blood cells) 
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Formation process of a long bone (6)
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  • Cartilage begins to turn into bone (ossification)
  • Epiphyseal plates develop across ends of bone (growth plate)
  • Bones continue to lengthen
  • Bones stop lengthening when fully ossified
  • Leaves an epiphyseal line
  • Bone resorption and formation continues
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What are the four classifications of bones?
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  • Long bones: have a shaft with heads at each end (femur, humerus)
  • Short bones: cube shaped, contains spongy bone, compact and springy (carpals, tarsals/wrist, ankle)
  • Flat bones: thin, flattened, usually curved, thin layer of compact around spongy bone (ribs, sternum, skull)
  • Irregular bones: irregular shape (vertebrae, hip, patella, scapula) 
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What is the function of the sinuses?
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  • Produce a mucus that moisturises the inside of the nose
  • This mucus layer protects the nose from pollutants, micro-organisms, dust and dirt
  • Sinuses lighten the skull and improve our voices
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What are the four types of bone (osseous) tissue?
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  • Compact bone: makes up hard, long, dense bones
  • Spongy bones: ends of long bones where blood cell production occurs
  • Bone marrow (red & yellow)
  • Connective tissue membrane: periosteum surrounds bones & endosteum lines cavities of long bones
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What are the three types of bone cells?
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  • Osteoblasts manufacture the matrix
  • Osteocytes maintain and repair existing bone matrix
  • Osteoclasts resorb bone tissue

Ossification is the conversion of cartilage to bone
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What are some common bone disorders?
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Osteoporosis: brittle bones caused by decrease in sex hormones
Osteopenia: low bone density
Osteomalacia: matrix hypomineralisation/vitamin D and calcium deficiency
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What are some skeletal changes caused by aging? (6)
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  • Loss of calcium salts
  • Decrease in protein
  • Reduction in collagen
  • Loss of height
  • Decrease in chest diameter
  • Postural changes
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Features of a synovial joint: (5)
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  • Joint capsule
  • Joint cavity
  • Articular cartilage
  • Synovial membrane
  • Synovial fluid
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Main disorders of joints
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Mechanical
  • Dislocation, sprain/ligament damage, hypermobility
Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid, septic, psoriasis, gout
Backache
  • Vertebrae disease 
  • Invertebral disc disorder: herniated, slipped, bulging
  • Supporting structural abnormalities
  • Lumbosacral joint strains
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  • 79 Studierende
  • 0 Lernmaterialien

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Q:
The study of bone structure and disorders is called?
A:
Osteology
Q:
The skeletal system is made up of? (3)
A:
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Supporting connective tissue
Q:
What are the functions of the skeletal system? (6)
A:
  • Supporting structural framework of the body
  • Protection of delicate structures (brain, spinal cord) 
  • Bones act as levers to produce movement
  • Storage of calcium, phosphorous, minerals and triglycerides
  • Mineral homeostasis: calcium and phosphorus
  • Hemopoiesis (production of blood cells) 
Q:
Formation process of a long bone (6)
A:
  • Cartilage begins to turn into bone (ossification)
  • Epiphyseal plates develop across ends of bone (growth plate)
  • Bones continue to lengthen
  • Bones stop lengthening when fully ossified
  • Leaves an epiphyseal line
  • Bone resorption and formation continues
Q:
What are the four classifications of bones?
A:
  • Long bones: have a shaft with heads at each end (femur, humerus)
  • Short bones: cube shaped, contains spongy bone, compact and springy (carpals, tarsals/wrist, ankle)
  • Flat bones: thin, flattened, usually curved, thin layer of compact around spongy bone (ribs, sternum, skull)
  • Irregular bones: irregular shape (vertebrae, hip, patella, scapula) 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is the function of the sinuses?
A:
  • Produce a mucus that moisturises the inside of the nose
  • This mucus layer protects the nose from pollutants, micro-organisms, dust and dirt
  • Sinuses lighten the skull and improve our voices
Q:
What are the four types of bone (osseous) tissue?
A:
  • Compact bone: makes up hard, long, dense bones
  • Spongy bones: ends of long bones where blood cell production occurs
  • Bone marrow (red & yellow)
  • Connective tissue membrane: periosteum surrounds bones & endosteum lines cavities of long bones
Q:
What are the three types of bone cells?
A:
  • Osteoblasts manufacture the matrix
  • Osteocytes maintain and repair existing bone matrix
  • Osteoclasts resorb bone tissue

Ossification is the conversion of cartilage to bone
Q:
What are some common bone disorders?
A:
Osteoporosis: brittle bones caused by decrease in sex hormones
Osteopenia: low bone density
Osteomalacia: matrix hypomineralisation/vitamin D and calcium deficiency
Q:
What are some skeletal changes caused by aging? (6)
A:
  • Loss of calcium salts
  • Decrease in protein
  • Reduction in collagen
  • Loss of height
  • Decrease in chest diameter
  • Postural changes
Q:
Features of a synovial joint: (5)
A:
  • Joint capsule
  • Joint cavity
  • Articular cartilage
  • Synovial membrane
  • Synovial fluid
Q:
Main disorders of joints
A:
Mechanical
  • Dislocation, sprain/ligament damage, hypermobility
Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid, septic, psoriasis, gout
Backache
  • Vertebrae disease 
  • Invertebral disc disorder: herniated, slipped, bulging
  • Supporting structural abnormalities
  • Lumbosacral joint strains
Anatomy Skeletal

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