Anatomy Nervous at University Of Western Australia | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Anatomy Nervous an der University of Western Australia

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What are the three types of neurons?
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  • Sensory (afferent) neurons: conduct impulses to spinal cord, brain
  • Motor (efferent) neurons: conduct impulses to muscles, glands
  • Interneurons (central/association): conduct information within CNS

Nerves are bundles of neuron fibres in the PNS
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What are the structural divisions of the nervous system?
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Central nervous system (CNS)
  • Brain
  • Spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • cranial nerves
  • spinal nerves
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What are the functions of the central nervous system?
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  • Cognition
  • Integration (command centre)
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Cerebrum structure and function
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Structure: two hemispheres, divided into lobes
Function:
  • Speech, memory
  • Logical and emotional responses
  • Voluntary movement
  • Interpretation of sensation
  • Consciousness

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Cerebellum structure and function
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Structure: two hemispheres located at the back/base of the brain, 'little brain's
Functions:
  • Compares intended movements to what is actually happening to smooth and co-ordinate complex movements
  • Regulates posture and balance
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Hypothalamus structure and function
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Structure: located beneath the thalamus deep in the middle of the brain
Functions: 
  • Controls the pituitary gland and autonomic nervous system
  • Regulates emotion and behaviour
  • Controls body temperature
  • Regulates eating and drinking
  • Maintains the drinking state and patterns of sleep. 
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Pituitary gland structure and function
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Structure: located immediately below the hypothalamus, connected via a thin stalk
Function:
  • Production and release of endocrine secretions
 
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The Pons structure and function
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Structure: part of the brain stem, immediately adjacent to the medulla oblongata
Functions: 
  • Connects regions of the brain including cerebrum to spinal cord and motor cortex to cerebellum 
  • Plays a role in controlling respiration
  • Pons = bridge
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Medulla oblongata structure and function
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Structure: most inferior aspect of the brain, merges into the spinal cord
Functions: 
  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Breathing
  • Swallowing
  • Vomiting
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Corpus callosum structure and function
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Structure: located deep within the cerebral hemispheres, composed of large fibre tracts that connect the left and right hemispheres
Function:
  • Allows for communication between the cerebral hemispheres
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Synapse parts (5)
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  • Axon (presynaptic cell)
  • Dendrite (postsynaptic cell)
  • Synaptic cleft
  • Neurotransmitters: epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), acetylcholine
  • Receptors
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What are the functions of the spinal cord?
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  • Links PNS and brain
  • Helps coordinate impulses within CNS
  • Contained in and protected by the vertebrae
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Q:
What are the three types of neurons?
A:
  • Sensory (afferent) neurons: conduct impulses to spinal cord, brain
  • Motor (efferent) neurons: conduct impulses to muscles, glands
  • Interneurons (central/association): conduct information within CNS

Nerves are bundles of neuron fibres in the PNS
Q:
What are the structural divisions of the nervous system?
A:
Central nervous system (CNS)
  • Brain
  • Spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • cranial nerves
  • spinal nerves
Q:
What are the functions of the central nervous system?
A:
  • Cognition
  • Integration (command centre)
Q:
Cerebrum structure and function
A:
Structure: two hemispheres, divided into lobes
Function:
  • Speech, memory
  • Logical and emotional responses
  • Voluntary movement
  • Interpretation of sensation
  • Consciousness

Q:
Cerebellum structure and function
A:
Structure: two hemispheres located at the back/base of the brain, 'little brain's
Functions:
  • Compares intended movements to what is actually happening to smooth and co-ordinate complex movements
  • Regulates posture and balance
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Hypothalamus structure and function
A:
Structure: located beneath the thalamus deep in the middle of the brain
Functions: 
  • Controls the pituitary gland and autonomic nervous system
  • Regulates emotion and behaviour
  • Controls body temperature
  • Regulates eating and drinking
  • Maintains the drinking state and patterns of sleep. 
Q:
Pituitary gland structure and function
A:
Structure: located immediately below the hypothalamus, connected via a thin stalk
Function:
  • Production and release of endocrine secretions
 
Q:
The Pons structure and function
A:
Structure: part of the brain stem, immediately adjacent to the medulla oblongata
Functions: 
  • Connects regions of the brain including cerebrum to spinal cord and motor cortex to cerebellum 
  • Plays a role in controlling respiration
  • Pons = bridge
Q:
Medulla oblongata structure and function
A:
Structure: most inferior aspect of the brain, merges into the spinal cord
Functions: 
  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Breathing
  • Swallowing
  • Vomiting
Q:
Corpus callosum structure and function
A:
Structure: located deep within the cerebral hemispheres, composed of large fibre tracts that connect the left and right hemispheres
Function:
  • Allows for communication between the cerebral hemispheres
Q:
Synapse parts (5)
A:
  • Axon (presynaptic cell)
  • Dendrite (postsynaptic cell)
  • Synaptic cleft
  • Neurotransmitters: epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), acetylcholine
  • Receptors
Q:
What are the functions of the spinal cord?
A:
  • Links PNS and brain
  • Helps coordinate impulses within CNS
  • Contained in and protected by the vertebrae
Anatomy Nervous

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