Research Methods at University Of Wales, Aberystwyth | Flashcards & Summaries

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What are the three new research methods in a level psychology

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1. content analysis

2. Case studies

3. thematic analysis

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what is content analysis

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Its a method used to analyse qualitative date and transform into quantitative date. The aim is to use content analysis to quantify patterns in communication. This could include stories published in news papers, films, adverts, photos.

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How do you carry out content analysis

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1.Decide what  your research question is.

2.Decide WHAT you are going to analyse and how you will collect  this? 

3.Develop a list of CODING CATEGORIES/UNITS that are OPERATIONALISED.

4.Pilot it. Make any changes needed.  Ensure units are COMPREHENSIVE.

5.Tally / count the number of times the categories occur.

6.Check the reliability of the content analysis by correlating one researchers scores with another's. (INTER-RATER RELIABILITY)

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how do you create the best coding categories

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1. skim the material and make a list of the main coding categories

2. operationalise the categories

3. the list of categories must be comprehensive

4. the categories must be mutually exclusive

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Evaluation of content analysis

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observer bias- one researcher might interpret the meaning of a category differently to another. this means that one researcher might put a tally in a category they think is right whilst another wouldn't as they don't have the same understanding on the category

Inter rater reliability- The media that has been analysed can be easily accessed and correlated by other researchers to check reliability. also the same standardised method can be used(test, retest)

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what is a case study?

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A detailed investigation into a person, group or event. whatever is being studied tends to be an unusual case. use information from a range of sources. the individuals might be observed or interviewed or given an IQ test to collect psychological data.

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evaluation of case studies

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contain rich in-depth, rich, detailed qualitative data and also quantitative data. gives a holistic view of the thing being studied

Ethical issues- sometimes the identity of the individual has reached the public despite efforts to keep the case confidential. Psychological harm from being tested over and over

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evaluation of thematic analysis

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tends to have high ecological validity because it's based on observation of real material that is current and relevant.

A weakness is the process is unscientific and open to researcher bias

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​​​​​What is reliability

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The extent to which we get the same results when we repeat the same measurement/study/test. If the measurement is consistent then its reliable.

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What are ways of assessing reliability?

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Test-retest - this involves giving the same test or questionnaire to the same person on different occasions. If the test is reliable then the results obtained should be the same. There must be sufficient time between the test and retest to ensure the participants cant recall their answers but not so long that their opinions or beliefs have changed. In the case f a questionnaire the two results would be correlated and if they have a score of above 0.8 then it's reliable.

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what is inter-observer reliability

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One observer's interpretation of events may differ widely from someone else introducing subjectivity and bias in the data collection process. There should be more than one observer collecting the data. However inter-observer reliability needs to be established. This may involve a small scale pilot study in order to check that observers are applying behavioural categories in the same way.  The date should be correlated

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What is validity

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the extent to which the test/study produces a result that is legitimate. Do the results represent what's going on in the real world. There are many types of validity.

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Q:

What are the three new research methods in a level psychology

A:

1. content analysis

2. Case studies

3. thematic analysis

Q:

what is content analysis

A:

Its a method used to analyse qualitative date and transform into quantitative date. The aim is to use content analysis to quantify patterns in communication. This could include stories published in news papers, films, adverts, photos.

Q:

How do you carry out content analysis

A:

1.Decide what  your research question is.

2.Decide WHAT you are going to analyse and how you will collect  this? 

3.Develop a list of CODING CATEGORIES/UNITS that are OPERATIONALISED.

4.Pilot it. Make any changes needed.  Ensure units are COMPREHENSIVE.

5.Tally / count the number of times the categories occur.

6.Check the reliability of the content analysis by correlating one researchers scores with another's. (INTER-RATER RELIABILITY)

Q:

how do you create the best coding categories

A:

1. skim the material and make a list of the main coding categories

2. operationalise the categories

3. the list of categories must be comprehensive

4. the categories must be mutually exclusive

Q:

Evaluation of content analysis

A:

observer bias- one researcher might interpret the meaning of a category differently to another. this means that one researcher might put a tally in a category they think is right whilst another wouldn't as they don't have the same understanding on the category

Inter rater reliability- The media that has been analysed can be easily accessed and correlated by other researchers to check reliability. also the same standardised method can be used(test, retest)

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Q:

what is a case study?

A:

A detailed investigation into a person, group or event. whatever is being studied tends to be an unusual case. use information from a range of sources. the individuals might be observed or interviewed or given an IQ test to collect psychological data.

Q:

evaluation of case studies

A:

contain rich in-depth, rich, detailed qualitative data and also quantitative data. gives a holistic view of the thing being studied

Ethical issues- sometimes the identity of the individual has reached the public despite efforts to keep the case confidential. Psychological harm from being tested over and over

Q:

evaluation of thematic analysis

A:

tends to have high ecological validity because it's based on observation of real material that is current and relevant.

A weakness is the process is unscientific and open to researcher bias

Q:

​​​​​What is reliability

A:

The extent to which we get the same results when we repeat the same measurement/study/test. If the measurement is consistent then its reliable.

Q:

What are ways of assessing reliability?

A:

Test-retest - this involves giving the same test or questionnaire to the same person on different occasions. If the test is reliable then the results obtained should be the same. There must be sufficient time between the test and retest to ensure the participants cant recall their answers but not so long that their opinions or beliefs have changed. In the case f a questionnaire the two results would be correlated and if they have a score of above 0.8 then it's reliable.

Q:

what is inter-observer reliability

A:

One observer's interpretation of events may differ widely from someone else introducing subjectivity and bias in the data collection process. There should be more than one observer collecting the data. However inter-observer reliability needs to be established. This may involve a small scale pilot study in order to check that observers are applying behavioural categories in the same way.  The date should be correlated

Q:

What is validity

A:

the extent to which the test/study produces a result that is legitimate. Do the results represent what's going on in the real world. There are many types of validity.

research methods

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