Cellbiology at University of Vienna

Flashcards and summaries for Cellbiology at the University of Vienna

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Cellbiology at the University of Vienna

Exemplary flashcards for Cellbiology at the University of Vienna on StudySmarter:

The endomembrane system

Exemplary flashcards for Cellbiology at the University of Vienna on StudySmarter:

The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory

Exemplary flashcards for Cellbiology at the University of Vienna on StudySmarter:

•Mitochondria

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Exemplary flashcards for Cellbiology at the University of Vienna on StudySmarter:

Peroxisomes

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Was haben alle Zellen gemeinsam?

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Prokaryotische Zellen

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Eukaryotische Zellen

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Exemplary flashcards for Cellbiology at the University of Vienna on StudySmarter:

Ribosome

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Endomembransystem 

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Endoplasmatische Reticulum (ER)

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Smooth ER

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Rough ER

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Exemplary flashcards for Cellbiology at the University of Vienna on StudySmarter:

Cellbiology

The endomembrane system

regulates protein traffic
and performs metabolic functions in the cell



•Components of the endomembrane system


–Nuclear envelope
–Endoplasmic reticulum
–Golgi apparatus
–Lysosomes
–Vacuoles
–Plasma membrane


•These components are either continuous or
connected via transfer by vesicles

Cellbiology

The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory

•The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accounts for more than half of the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells


•The ER membrane is continuous with the nuclear envelope


•There are two distinct regions of ER


–Smooth ER, which lacks ribosomes
–Rough ER, surface is studded with ribosomes


Functions of Smooth ER

–Synthesises lipids
–Metabolises carbohydrates
–Detoxifies drugs and poisons
–Stores calcium ions


Functions of Rough ER

–Has bound ribosomes, which secrete glycoproteins (proteins covalently bonded
to carbohydrates)
–Distributes transport vesicles, proteins surrounded by membranes
–Is a membrane factory for the cell

Cellbiology

•Mitochondria

are the sites of cellular respiration, a metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP


•Mitochondria are found in nearly all
eukaryotic cells


•They have a smooth outer membrane
and an inner membrane folded into
cristae (ist eine Falte )


–The inner membrane creates two
compartments: intermembrane space
and mitochondrial matrix(fluid)


•Some metabolic steps of cellular
respiration are catalyzed in the
mitochondrial matrix


•Cristae present a large surface area for
enzymes that synthesize ATP

Cellbiology

Peroxisomes

Oxidation

Peroxisomes are specialized metabolic compartments bounded by a single membrane


- Peroxisomes perform reactions with many different functions.
Peroxisomes break down organic molecules (notably fatty acids
and amino acids) by the process of oxidation to produce
hydrogen peroxide, which is the basis of the name peroxisome.
This is then quickly converted to oxygen and water.


- Peroxisomes produce cholesterol and phospholipids found in brain
and heart tissue. A peroxisome protein is involved in preventing
one cause of kidney stones. In plants a type of peroxisome
converts fatty acids to carbohydrates.


Cellbiology

Was haben alle Zellen gemeinsam?

  • speichern die vererbbare Information in Form von DNA
  • transkribieren DNA in RNA
  • verwenden Proteine als Katalysatoren (Enzyme?)
  • Teile der DNA werden in RNA transkribiert
  • RNA wird auf gleicherweise in Proteine translatiert
  • Autokatalytischer Prozess: katalysiert gegessene Essen in Energie und Bausteine => um noch mehr Katalysten zu produzieren
  • brauchen bestimmte Bausteine (Zucker, Nucleotide, AS, ATP)
  • haben eine Plasma Membran mit Membranproteine die Nährstoffe und Abfallprodukte in bzw aus der Zelle lassen

Cellbiology

Prokaryotische Zellen

  • kein Zellkern
  • meiste Einzeller
  • verschiedene Formen
  • DNA ungebunden => Nucleoid 
  • keine Organellen mit Membranen
  • Zytoplasma mit Plasmamembran verbunden

Cellbiology

Eukaryotische Zellen

Membran umschlossene Organellen => größtes Nucleus 

Cellbiology

Ribosome

  • kein Organelle, da keine Membranhülle
  • aus rRNA und Proteine
  • Verantwortlich für Proteinsynthese an zwei Orten: 
    • Cytosol (freie Ribosome)
    • Außenseite des ER oder der Nucleushülle (gebundene Ribosome)


Cellbiology

Endomembransystem 

besteht aus:

  • Nuclearhülle
  • Endoplasmatische Reticulum
  • Golgi Apparat 
  • Lysosom
  • Vakuolen
  • Plasma Membran


entweder durchgehen oder über Vesikles verbunden

Aufgaben:

reguliert Proteintransfer 

übt metabolitische Funktionen aus

Cellbiology

Endoplasmatische Reticulum (ER)

  • Biosynthetische Fabrik 
  • direkt mit Kernhülle verbunden
  • Smooth ER: 
    • keine Ribosome
  • Rough ER: 
    • an Oberfläche viele RIbosome

Cellbiology

Smooth ER

  • Synthetisiert Lipide
  • metbolisiert Kohlenhydrate
  • entgiftet Medikamente und Gifte
  • lagern Calciumionen

Cellbiology

Rough ER

  • Ribosome gebunden => diese sezernieren Glycoproteins 
  • verteilen Vesicles (Proteine mit Membranen)
  • Membran Fabrik

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