Philosophy at University Of Turin | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für philosophy an der University of Turin

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What is IVF? 
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IVF is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology. It is the union of human gametes in a laboratory dish instead of a woman’s body and it entails some specific stages that can be summarize in: 
1. Ovarian stimulation
2. Egg retrieval 
3. Insemination/fertilization
4. Embryo culture
5. Embryo transfer 
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What is gamete donation? 
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Gamete donation is another form of IVF. It is used when either both persons or one suffers from problems with their gametes. This solution allows couples in receiving sperm or eggs from donors, who can be anonymous or known accordingly to the regulation of the specific country considered. Obviously, the child will be genetically linked to the male donor, or the female one, but gestated by the one who will become his or her mother. The real change in this case is not how gestation is conducted but the genetics at the base of it. 
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How does the World Health Organization define infertility? 
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Infertility is defined as follows: a disease of the male or female reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse”
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what is open science? 

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it describes the practice of carrying out scientific research in a completely transparent manner, enabling everyone to get access to the results 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What could be a social problem, according to some philosophers, about IVF having a price? (a part from inequality)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
According to some philosophers, the monetary value required by IVF could lead to considering offspring as commodities, therefore as manufactured products acquired in a marketplace for a price, treating them with less care than naturally conceived children.  
However, other philosophers argue that following this reasoning, adoptions should be judged by the same terms. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

how are post-truth and mistrust linked to each other?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

the manipulation conducted by post-truth causes a state of confusion within the public opinion turning into mistrust toward public institutions and authorities

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definition of science by General Comment no.25 

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science signifies the enterprise whereby humankind, acting individually or in small or large groups, makes an organized attempt, by means of the objective study of observed phenomena and its validation through sharing of findings and data, brings together in a coordinated form of subsystems of knowledge [...]

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

why has the right to science been long-neglected?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Due to the amplitude of the cultural rights, the complexity of the subject matter to be regulated, the current climate of hostility against facts, scientists, and experts. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

what is the interest to be protected that turns the right to science into a human right?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

it is a fact that science has to be used as an instrument for human benefit, and the process of doing scientific research shall be consistent with the nondiscrimination principle and equal treatment, participation and transparency in decision making, and free and informed consent for the involvement in research 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
In which year was the Hasting Center created? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1969
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What is Cynthia. B Cohen opinion upon the condition of nonexistence seen as an evil? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Cohen claims that, we cannot consider non existence as an harm unless we suppose that children with an interest in existing are waiting in a spectral world of non existence. In that case, failure to use all possible technologies to allow these specters to exist would be a gross error. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

what is the social problem associated with donor-IVF?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Some bioethicists argue that since donor-IVF weakens biological and genetic connections between parents and children, it would also loosen the social bond between them. 

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Q:
What is IVF? 
A:
IVF is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology. It is the union of human gametes in a laboratory dish instead of a woman’s body and it entails some specific stages that can be summarize in: 
1. Ovarian stimulation
2. Egg retrieval 
3. Insemination/fertilization
4. Embryo culture
5. Embryo transfer 
Q:
What is gamete donation? 
A:
Gamete donation is another form of IVF. It is used when either both persons or one suffers from problems with their gametes. This solution allows couples in receiving sperm or eggs from donors, who can be anonymous or known accordingly to the regulation of the specific country considered. Obviously, the child will be genetically linked to the male donor, or the female one, but gestated by the one who will become his or her mother. The real change in this case is not how gestation is conducted but the genetics at the base of it. 
Q:
How does the World Health Organization define infertility? 
A:
Infertility is defined as follows: a disease of the male or female reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse”
Q:

what is open science? 

A:

it describes the practice of carrying out scientific research in a completely transparent manner, enabling everyone to get access to the results 

Q:
What could be a social problem, according to some philosophers, about IVF having a price? (a part from inequality)
A:
According to some philosophers, the monetary value required by IVF could lead to considering offspring as commodities, therefore as manufactured products acquired in a marketplace for a price, treating them with less care than naturally conceived children.  
However, other philosophers argue that following this reasoning, adoptions should be judged by the same terms. 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

how are post-truth and mistrust linked to each other?

A:

the manipulation conducted by post-truth causes a state of confusion within the public opinion turning into mistrust toward public institutions and authorities

Q:

definition of science by General Comment no.25 

A:

science signifies the enterprise whereby humankind, acting individually or in small or large groups, makes an organized attempt, by means of the objective study of observed phenomena and its validation through sharing of findings and data, brings together in a coordinated form of subsystems of knowledge [...]

Q:

why has the right to science been long-neglected?

A:

Due to the amplitude of the cultural rights, the complexity of the subject matter to be regulated, the current climate of hostility against facts, scientists, and experts. 

Q:

what is the interest to be protected that turns the right to science into a human right?

A:

it is a fact that science has to be used as an instrument for human benefit, and the process of doing scientific research shall be consistent with the nondiscrimination principle and equal treatment, participation and transparency in decision making, and free and informed consent for the involvement in research 

Q:
In which year was the Hasting Center created? 
A:
1969
Q:
What is Cynthia. B Cohen opinion upon the condition of nonexistence seen as an evil? 
A:
Cohen claims that, we cannot consider non existence as an harm unless we suppose that children with an interest in existing are waiting in a spectral world of non existence. In that case, failure to use all possible technologies to allow these specters to exist would be a gross error. 
Q:

what is the social problem associated with donor-IVF?

A:

Some bioethicists argue that since donor-IVF weakens biological and genetic connections between parents and children, it would also loosen the social bond between them. 

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