Biology at University Of Toronto | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Biology an der University of Toronto

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Fetal circulation
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Foremen ovale: fetal shunt from right atrium -> left atrium to bypass fetal lungs
Ductus arteriosus: fetal shunt from pulmonary artery -> aorta to bypass fetal lungs
Ductus venosus: fetal shunt from umbilical vein -> IVC to bypass fetal liver

Umbilical vein (1): oxygenated, detoxified blood from placenta -> fetus
Umbilical arteries (2): deoxygenated, waste-filled blood from fetus -> placenta
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Negative sense virus
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Genome of RNA virus where RNA sequence is complementary to actual transcript for viral proteins (virus contains RNA replicate -> cDNA -> template for protein synthesis) 

*Negative sense takes LONGER 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Positive sense virus
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Genome of RNA virus where viral RNA is direct template for viral proteins (viral RNA -> proteins by host ribosomes)

*Positive sense is FASTER
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Gram-positive vs Gram-negative bacteria
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Gram-Positive: PURPLE = thick peptidoglycan layer, lipoteichoic acid PAMP – more affected by penicillin that disrupts peptidoglycan 

Gram-Negative: RED = thin peptidoglycan surrounded by inner and outer PL membranes, lipopolysaccharide PAMP

Gram Stain: (1) stain purple, (2) wash, (3) stain red – the thick peptidoglycan traps purple in Gram-Positive
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Types of Bacteria
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Obligate aerobes: require oxygen to survive (ex: humans); only perform aerobic metabolism

Facultative anaerobes: can survive and conduct metabolism with or without oxygen 

Aerotolerant anaerobes: can survive in oxygen but can only perform anaerobic metabolism

Obligate anaerobes: require absence of oxygen to survive, oxygen -> ROS -> death; only perform anaerobic metabolism
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Stem cell types
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Totipotent: differentiate to all cells types including the 3 primary germ layers and place tail structures (ex: the zygote)
Pluripotent: differentiate to any of the 3 primary germ layers + derivatives (ex: ESC)
Multi-potent: differentiate to any cell type within lineage (ex: HPSC)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Prion
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Infectious protein that promotes transition of alpha helixes -> beta sheets (increased protein aggregation)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Ectoderm
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Outermost primary germ layer; gives rise to nervous system, lens of eye, inner ear, skin, hair, nails
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Spleen
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Highly vascular organ = location for disposal of aged RBC and site form presentation of antigens to B cells
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Latent period
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Time between AP and muscle contraction because takes time for AP -> Ca2+ signalling -> myofilament crossbridge -> contraction
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Archenteron
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Blastula -> invagination -> gastrula with archenteron lined with endodermal cells (will form adult digestive tract) 

Blastophore: opening of archenteron that will form mouth (protostomes) or anus (deuterostomes) of species depending on embryonic program 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Endoderm
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Innermost primary germ layer (lines the archenteron); gives rise to lining of respiratory and digestive tracts
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
Fetal circulation
A:
Foremen ovale: fetal shunt from right atrium -> left atrium to bypass fetal lungs
Ductus arteriosus: fetal shunt from pulmonary artery -> aorta to bypass fetal lungs
Ductus venosus: fetal shunt from umbilical vein -> IVC to bypass fetal liver

Umbilical vein (1): oxygenated, detoxified blood from placenta -> fetus
Umbilical arteries (2): deoxygenated, waste-filled blood from fetus -> placenta
Q:
Negative sense virus
A:
Genome of RNA virus where RNA sequence is complementary to actual transcript for viral proteins (virus contains RNA replicate -> cDNA -> template for protein synthesis) 

*Negative sense takes LONGER 
Q:
Positive sense virus
A:
Genome of RNA virus where viral RNA is direct template for viral proteins (viral RNA -> proteins by host ribosomes)

*Positive sense is FASTER
Q:
Gram-positive vs Gram-negative bacteria
A:
Gram-Positive: PURPLE = thick peptidoglycan layer, lipoteichoic acid PAMP – more affected by penicillin that disrupts peptidoglycan 

Gram-Negative: RED = thin peptidoglycan surrounded by inner and outer PL membranes, lipopolysaccharide PAMP

Gram Stain: (1) stain purple, (2) wash, (3) stain red – the thick peptidoglycan traps purple in Gram-Positive
Q:
Types of Bacteria
A:
Obligate aerobes: require oxygen to survive (ex: humans); only perform aerobic metabolism

Facultative anaerobes: can survive and conduct metabolism with or without oxygen 

Aerotolerant anaerobes: can survive in oxygen but can only perform anaerobic metabolism

Obligate anaerobes: require absence of oxygen to survive, oxygen -> ROS -> death; only perform anaerobic metabolism
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Stem cell types
A:
Totipotent: differentiate to all cells types including the 3 primary germ layers and place tail structures (ex: the zygote)
Pluripotent: differentiate to any of the 3 primary germ layers + derivatives (ex: ESC)
Multi-potent: differentiate to any cell type within lineage (ex: HPSC)
Q:
Prion
A:
Infectious protein that promotes transition of alpha helixes -> beta sheets (increased protein aggregation)
Q:
Ectoderm
A:
Outermost primary germ layer; gives rise to nervous system, lens of eye, inner ear, skin, hair, nails
Q:
Spleen
A:
Highly vascular organ = location for disposal of aged RBC and site form presentation of antigens to B cells
Q:
Latent period
A:
Time between AP and muscle contraction because takes time for AP -> Ca2+ signalling -> myofilament crossbridge -> contraction
Q:
Archenteron
A:
Blastula -> invagination -> gastrula with archenteron lined with endodermal cells (will form adult digestive tract) 

Blastophore: opening of archenteron that will form mouth (protostomes) or anus (deuterostomes) of species depending on embryonic program 
Q:
Endoderm
A:
Innermost primary germ layer (lines the archenteron); gives rise to lining of respiratory and digestive tracts
Biology

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