BTN211 at University Of The Western Cape | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für BTN211 an der University of the Western Cape

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Simple staining

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  • single dye used
  • colours micro-organism
  • binds to various cell structures
  • uses methylene blue and crystal violet
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Negative staining

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  • used to view bacterial capsule
  • capsule and cell cannot be stained but background takes the colour
  • capsule appear as ghosts
  • uses India ink, Anthony's and Nigrosin
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Gram staining

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  • a differential staining method
  • divides bacteria into gram - and gram +
  • gram + retains primary dyes
  • gram - easily decolourises
  • dye retention is dependent on physical properties
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Gram +

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  • thick dense cell walls
  • may stain negative when cell wall integrity has been lost
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Gram - cell walls

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  • has thin walls
  • surrounded by lipid rich membranes
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Gram stain procedure

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • prepare and heat fix a smear
  • crystal violet
  • lugol iodine
  • alcohol
  • safranin
  • wash with water in between steps
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Gram stain principles

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • depends on permeability to dye-iodine complex
  • crystal violet complex forms inside the cell
  • complex is extracted by alcohol gram - bacteria
  • gram + organisms retain crystal violet 
  • gram  - organisms do not stain with safranin
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Endospore staining

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • endospores are resistant to staining 
  • steam bath enables primary stain to penetrate 
  • cooling traps stain inside
  • uses Schaeffer and Fulton
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Endospore staining procedure

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Prepare and heat fix a smear
  • malachite green with filter paper
  • heat gently
  • wash with water
  • safranin
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Liquid media

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • broth that contains nutrients for microbial growth
  • growth is observed as :
  1. Pellicle 
  2. Turbidity 
  3. Sediment
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Pellicle

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mass floating at the top of the broth

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Hans Christian Gram

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Observed that some genera of bacteria retained a dye-Iodine complex when rinsed with alcohol, while other genera were easily decolourized with alcohol and could be then visualized by a contrasting counterstain 

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  • 24 Lernmaterialien

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Q:

Simple staining

A:
  • single dye used
  • colours micro-organism
  • binds to various cell structures
  • uses methylene blue and crystal violet
Q:

Negative staining

A:
  • used to view bacterial capsule
  • capsule and cell cannot be stained but background takes the colour
  • capsule appear as ghosts
  • uses India ink, Anthony's and Nigrosin
Q:

Gram staining

A:
  • a differential staining method
  • divides bacteria into gram - and gram +
  • gram + retains primary dyes
  • gram - easily decolourises
  • dye retention is dependent on physical properties
Q:

Gram +

A:
  • thick dense cell walls
  • may stain negative when cell wall integrity has been lost
Q:

Gram - cell walls

A:
  • has thin walls
  • surrounded by lipid rich membranes
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Gram stain procedure

A:
  • prepare and heat fix a smear
  • crystal violet
  • lugol iodine
  • alcohol
  • safranin
  • wash with water in between steps
Q:

Gram stain principles

A:
  • depends on permeability to dye-iodine complex
  • crystal violet complex forms inside the cell
  • complex is extracted by alcohol gram - bacteria
  • gram + organisms retain crystal violet 
  • gram  - organisms do not stain with safranin
Q:

Endospore staining

A:
  • endospores are resistant to staining 
  • steam bath enables primary stain to penetrate 
  • cooling traps stain inside
  • uses Schaeffer and Fulton
Q:

Endospore staining procedure

A:
  • Prepare and heat fix a smear
  • malachite green with filter paper
  • heat gently
  • wash with water
  • safranin
Q:

Liquid media

A:
  • broth that contains nutrients for microbial growth
  • growth is observed as :
  1. Pellicle 
  2. Turbidity 
  3. Sediment
Q:

Pellicle

A:

mass floating at the top of the broth

Q:

Hans Christian Gram

A:

Observed that some genera of bacteria retained a dye-Iodine complex when rinsed with alcohol, while other genera were easily decolourized with alcohol and could be then visualized by a contrasting counterstain 

BTN211

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