Botany at University Of The Free State | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Botany an der University of the Free State

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen Botany Kurs an der University of the Free State zu.

TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Plant Pathology is defined as:
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The study of the organisms and environmental conditions that cause disease in plants, the mechanisms by which this occurs, the interactions between these causal agents and the plant (effects on plant growth, yield and quality), and the methods of managing or controlling plant disease.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Necrotrophs
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
They are basically saprobical
They produce toxins that kill host cells, after which they leak food materials. e.g. Monilinia
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Symptoms
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Leaf spots 
  • Stunting 
  • Cankers 
  • Blights 
  • Rots 
  • Mosaic
  • Mottling 
  • Streaks 
  • Yellowing 
  • Leaf curl 
  • Wilt
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How do pathogens establish infections?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Direct (through plant tissues) or indirect (through natural openings) penetration.
  • Latent (quiescent) infections (no symptoms).
  • Incubation period (time between infection and symptom)
  • Latent period (time between infection and production of new inoculum)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The causes of plant diseases:
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • FungI
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Nematodes 
  • Abiotic factors
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Obligate parasites 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
They are totally dependant on their hosts for survival.
Sometimes the association is so close that the pathogen can only grow on a particular host or even cultivar within a species.
e.g. rust fungi such as Puccinia sp.


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Three different kinds of pathogens:
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Facultative parasites
  • Necrotrophs
  • Obligate parasites


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are fungi?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• All fungi are heterotrophs (cannot produce their own food)
Composed of filaments that grow in a mass
Size and shape determined by environment
Filaments secrete extracellular enzymes to degrade organic compounds
Nutrients absorbed through cell walls
• Individual filaments – hypha (pl. hyphae)
• Mass of hyphae – mycelium
• They can grow saprophytically or as parasites (biotrophs & necrotrophs)
• They can also produce mycotoxins, metabolites toxic to humans and animals
   
 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are viruses?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Obligate parasites
  • They cannot reproduce outside a living host cell, because their reproductive process, called replication, requires amino acids, nucleotides, enzymes, cellular structures, and energy supplied by the host cell
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Stunting:
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Plants that appear smaller than normal
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Talents that a pathogen need:
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Need to overcome the natural defence mechanism of the plant
• Need to be able to penetrate the plant cells
• Need to be able to disperse from one host to another
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Koch’s postulates
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
(1) The organism must be consistently associated with the disease.
(2) The organism must be isolated in pure, axenic culture.
(3) When the organism is re-inoculated onto healthy plants, it must produce the original disease.
(4) The organism then needs to be re-isolated.
Lösung ausblenden
  • 10109 Karteikarten
  • 925 Studierende
  • 25 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Botany Kurs an der University of the Free State - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
Plant Pathology is defined as:
A:
The study of the organisms and environmental conditions that cause disease in plants, the mechanisms by which this occurs, the interactions between these causal agents and the plant (effects on plant growth, yield and quality), and the methods of managing or controlling plant disease.
Q:
Necrotrophs
A:
They are basically saprobical
They produce toxins that kill host cells, after which they leak food materials. e.g. Monilinia
Q:
Symptoms
A:
  • Leaf spots 
  • Stunting 
  • Cankers 
  • Blights 
  • Rots 
  • Mosaic
  • Mottling 
  • Streaks 
  • Yellowing 
  • Leaf curl 
  • Wilt
Q:
How do pathogens establish infections?
A:
  • Direct (through plant tissues) or indirect (through natural openings) penetration.
  • Latent (quiescent) infections (no symptoms).
  • Incubation period (time between infection and symptom)
  • Latent period (time between infection and production of new inoculum)
Q:
The causes of plant diseases:
A:
  • FungI
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Nematodes 
  • Abiotic factors
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Obligate parasites 
A:
They are totally dependant on their hosts for survival.
Sometimes the association is so close that the pathogen can only grow on a particular host or even cultivar within a species.
e.g. rust fungi such as Puccinia sp.


Q:
Three different kinds of pathogens:
A:
  • Facultative parasites
  • Necrotrophs
  • Obligate parasites


Q:
What are fungi?
A:
• All fungi are heterotrophs (cannot produce their own food)
Composed of filaments that grow in a mass
Size and shape determined by environment
Filaments secrete extracellular enzymes to degrade organic compounds
Nutrients absorbed through cell walls
• Individual filaments – hypha (pl. hyphae)
• Mass of hyphae – mycelium
• They can grow saprophytically or as parasites (biotrophs & necrotrophs)
• They can also produce mycotoxins, metabolites toxic to humans and animals
   
 
Q:
What are viruses?
A:
  • Obligate parasites
  • They cannot reproduce outside a living host cell, because their reproductive process, called replication, requires amino acids, nucleotides, enzymes, cellular structures, and energy supplied by the host cell
Q:
Stunting:
A:
Plants that appear smaller than normal
Q:
Talents that a pathogen need:
A:
• Need to overcome the natural defence mechanism of the plant
• Need to be able to penetrate the plant cells
• Need to be able to disperse from one host to another
Q:
Koch’s postulates
A:
(1) The organism must be consistently associated with the disease.
(2) The organism must be isolated in pure, axenic culture.
(3) When the organism is re-inoculated onto healthy plants, it must produce the original disease.
(4) The organism then needs to be re-isolated.
Botany

Erstelle und finde Lernmaterialien auf StudySmarter.

Greife kostenlos auf tausende geteilte Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Altklausuren und mehr zu.

Jetzt loslegen

Das sind die beliebtesten Botany Kurse im gesamten StudySmarter Universum

Botany Lec

Central Luzon State University

Zum Kurs
Botany 1

University of Nizwa

Zum Kurs
Botanik

Universität Koblenz-Landau

Zum Kurs

Die all-in-one Lernapp für Studierende

Greife auf Millionen geteilter Lernmaterialien der StudySmarter Community zu
Kostenlos anmelden Botany
Erstelle Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen mit den StudySmarter Tools
Kostenlos loslegen Botany